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We have also something very like a specifi- cally of Brahmans, as those acquainted with the forms of 01 as the I, Iocs not occur in this hook, and there arc indications of Rajan hostile to the ritual who would not, therefore, have, belonged to the recognized uqiilitary order.

No such word as Shudm is icsed, althougft, a. Tlu'y wore not, however, so harbarous but that they were a. In thoiT towns or cities we find existing the arts, sciences, imstitutas, and vices ol civilized life, golden ornaments, coats ol mad. Wc have mention. J and ff. In translating the text of the uccond Ashlaka.

Whitney, and published in the second volume of the IndiscJie Studien of Dr. With these and other appliances, the task of translation has been in some degree facilitated, although I nonnot pretend to have always contended successfully with the inherent difficulties of the original ; a brief notice of which may possibly contribute to a candid appreciation of the arduousness of tho under- taking, and may be of soine service to students of the text.

It may be doubted if tho impediments to a right under- standing of the text of the Veda have been accurately conceived of, especially when they arc confined to peculi- arities of grammatical constmeUnn, or the use of words not found in other works, or employed in an miiisual accept- ation.

The far greater portion of Veddih grammar is as systematic as that of the laws of Maw, and the exceptions, when regular, as specified in the sketch of tho grammar of the Vedas, which I have given in the second edition of the Sanscrit grammar, soon become familiar ; the only real difficulty on this head arises from the disregard of all grammar, and the arbitrary substitution of one case or number of a noun, or person and tense of a verb for another, as specified by Pamim, and instances of which.

Admitting, however, that the correct understanding of single terms may be very much promoted by the com- parison of all the passages in which they are met with, a very small advance will have been effected towards sur- mounting the difficulty of translation even as respects words alone. Still, however, these are but alight obstacles, and will'. The Scholiast says, mild-tcmperod priests, and it w'ould not be easy to suggest a preferable application of the epithet, although if not traditional it is only conjectural.

What would the European scholar do here without the Scholiast? The object as well as the subject is very frequently omitted. Thus we have I. An equally frequent ellipse is that of the verb, as I. Again 1. Another source of perplexity which is not uncommon, and which is also a sort of cllqise, is the abuse of metony- my; thus, we have II.

To these sources of difiiculty others less peculiar, but for the elucidation of which an authentic gloss is no less desirable, are to be added ; such as those of involved and complex construction, such as is common in all metrical compositions ; and the use of terms of a figurative and allegorical import. How iar his lecture and amjilificafcion may have been preserved iin- corrupted tlirough successive generations until they reached Yasha, and eventually Sayana, may be reasonably liable to liuestiou, but that the explanations of these Scholiasts were not arbitrary, but wore suck as had bocu established by the practice of preceding schools and wore generally current at their several eras, can admit of no doubt.

Even if it were not so, their undeniable learning and their sj'in- pathy with the views and feelings of their countrymen, amongst whom were the original authors and expounders of the Suhas, mnst give a weight to their authority which no European scholar, however profound his knowledge of Sanscrit or of the Vedas, can, in my opinion, be entitled to claim. The first word, Ila, is the subject of a different expla- xxn Introduction nation.

Professor Benfey aiiparontly detaches it from 72a, and applies it to aanim, gift, distribution, whilst Sayma considers mnim an epithet also of lla, pradalrL the liberal donor, i. Langlois, a jamais, is not far from the same, althougli lie puts it in relation to the earth. The several translators agree tolerably well in the close ; but their discrepancies in a passage of less than ordinary perplexity may he considered as bearing witness to the utility or even to the necessity of a competent interpreter, such as w'e have in Sayam AcJiarya, although he may not be infallible : XXIV iNTEODUCTtOK at any rate I gratefully acknowledge the value of his assistance, and without it I should not have ventured to attempt a translation of the Rig- Veda.

London, 17th October The alterations made in tins volume follow the lines indicated in the Prefatory Note to Volume I. Poona Cinr, 2Qih November Hukta TI. Prosont, inild-tcmpercd priests , the sacrificial viaurls which you have prepared, to the Tew'ard-showeriug Rudiia. Animated by our diversified praise, hasten, Morning and Night, to attend to our first invocation, as a wife to the first call of her husband ; and may the Dawn, beautiful with the lustre of the rising Riui, and robing like the Sun her vast expanse with golden rays, come to our early rite.

Priests, glorify the grandson of the waters Aoni , and render tlie divinities of the day and night the mothers as it were of the man who repeats their ]iraise. I, the son ot Ushij, address to you Ashwins audible praises, in like manner ns Ghosha ] raised you for the removal of her white-tinted skin ; 1 glorify gods the bountiful PusriAN associated with you, and 1 proclaim the munificence of Acini.

I praise you, Mitea and Vakuna, for your gift of numerous cattle to the Pajra, and from those praises may abundant food proceed. May the gods , bestowing nourishment on me, come quickly unimpeded, each in bis famous and favourite oar. I laud the treasures of that ojiulent assembly of the gods ; may we, men who are blessed with excellent descendants, partake of them together : the assembly conferring upon the Pajras abundant food, has been my I.

He, borne by well-trained horses, endowed with surjiassing strength, renowned above men, munificent in gifts, moves a hero, ever undaunted in all combats, even against mighty men. Royal hestowers o delight, listen to the invocation of your undying worshipper, aud then come hither, that you who traverse the. The gods have declared, Wc confer present vigour upon the w'or.

May all the gods in whom splen- dours and riches abound, bestow abundant food at solemn sacrifices. We rejoice that for the satisfaction of the ten organs of sense , the prieslfi hearing the tivico five ladles of sacrificial food, proceed to the altar. What can IsH- TASmvA, what can TsUarashmi, what can those who are now lords of the earth, achieve with respect to the leaders of men, the comiuerors of their foes?

May all the gods favour us with a person decorated with golden earrings and jewel necklace : may the venera- ble company of the deities be propitiated by the praises 4 Rio-vjjda Tbanslation [1. Let your spacious and bright-rayed chariot, Mitka and Vaeuna, blaze before them like the sun, filling them with fear.

First of all the world is she awake, triiunphing over transitory darkness : the mighty, tho giver of light from on high, she beholds all things : ever youtlilul, ever reviving, she comes first to the in vocation. Well-born and divine Ushas, who art tho protectress of mortals ; whatever share of light thou apportiouest to-day to men, may the radiant Savitri bo disposed to confirm the gift, and declare us free from sin ; so that he the sun may come to our sacrificial hall.

Ahana, charged with downward-bending light , goes daily from house to house : she comes, perpetually diffusing light, and desirous of bestowing benefits , and accepts the choicest portions of the sacrificial treasures. Let words of truth be s]iolcen : let norks of wisdom be performed : let the I'lazing fires rise ii]i, so that the many radiant Ushas maj make mAniCesi the desirable treasures hidden by the darkness.

The twofold day proceeds nnso] aratcd , one jjurt going forw'ard, one backward ; one of these two alter- nating periods effects the concealment of things , the Dawm illuin,ines them with her radiant chariot.

The same to-day, the same i-omorrow, the irrejiroa cit- able Dawns precede tlio distant course of VABtrKA by thirty yojams, and each in succession revolves m its appointed office. The self-illumined Dawn, annoimcing the decimation of the first portion of the day, is born wdiite-shiuing out of the gloom ; cleansing with the radiance of the.

Goddess, manifest in person him a maiden, tinui goest to the resplendent and munificent sun : and, like a youthful bride before her husband , thou uncoverest Radiant as a bride decorated by her mother, thou willingly displayest thy person to the vieu. Do thou, auspiuious UsiiAS, remove the investing gloom , for, other dawns than thou do not disperse it.

The deity, BisAi, and metre aic the same. When the sacred fire is kindled, UsilAS sheds abun- dant light, disporsiug the darkness like the rising sun : may the divine Savitri bestow uiion us for our use, wealth of both bipeds and quadrupeds. Unimpeding divine rites, although wearing away the ages of mankind, the Dawn shines the simditudo of the moimngs that have jiassed, or that arc to be for ever, the first of those that are to come.

She, the daughter of heaven, is beheld in the east, gracious and arrayed in light ; she travels steadily along the path of the sun, as if cognizant of his pleasure , and damages not the quarters of the horizon. She is beheld nigh at hand, radiant as the breast of the illimiinator the sun ; and, like Nodhas, has made mauifest many pleasing objects ; like a matron she awakens hex sleeping children , and of all females who are stirring betimes, she, the most unvarying, repeatedly appears.

Placed on the lap of both parents heaven and earth , filling them vvith radiance , she enjoys vast and wide-spread renown. Verily she, the wide-expanded Dsius, neglects not to give the joy of. She goes to the west, as a woman who has no brother repairs to her male relatives ; and like one ascending the hall of justice for the recovery of ] Topcriy, she mounts in the slcy to claim her lustre : and like a wife desirous to please her husband, Ushar puts on beconging attire, and smiling as it were, displays her charms.

Usiias, dispensmg the darkness with the rays of tile sun, illumines the world, like congregateil lightnings. Of all those sisters who have gone before, a successor daily follows the one that has preceded. So may new dawns, like the old, bringing fortunate days, shine upon blessed with affluence, Awaken, wealth-abounding Ushas, those who de- light in holy offerings : let the niggard traders, reluctant to wake for such a purpose , sleep on.

Arise, opulent USHAS, bearing wealth to the liberal worshipper : siieaker of truth, who art the waster away of living creatures , arise, bearing wealth to him who praises thee. This youUiiiil Usha. Assuredly she will disperse the darkness, a manifest sign of day in the firmament : the sacred fire is kindled in every dwelling.

At thy dawning, Ushas , the various birds rise up from their nests, and men who have to earn their bread quit their homes. Thou bringest, divine Ushas , much wealth to the liberal mortal who is present in the chamber of sacrifice. Praiseworthy Ushasas, be glorified by this my hymn ; graciously disposed towards us, augment our prosperity ; and may wo obtain, goddesses, through your favour, wealth, a hundred and a thousand fold.

Tho hyinn is suiipoaorl to bo rooLtod by Kaksiiivat, in noknnw- lodgmont of tlip liborabty of Saja Swanaya, whose gift is Ihorefoio considorod os iho divinity of tho hymn, or tbo object addccssod [ Kaksuivat is of oourso tho BUM ; the metre of the 4th and 51 h stanzas is Jagati , that of tho rest, TiuJitubh. May he the Raja be rich in kino, in gold, in horses : may Indra grant ahimdant food to him who delays thee, rctiirning home in the early morning, by costly gifts, as a himter arrests the w'andering animals by his snares.

Desirous of again beliolding tliec-. Ho who pTopitiato. These wonderful rewards verily arc lor tliosc who give pious donations : for the donors nl pious gifts the suns shine in heaven : the givers of pious donations attain immortality : the givers of pious gifts jiroloiig their worldly existence. May those who propitiate the gods , never commit degrading sin : may tho,se who praise the gods and observe holy voAvs, never experience decay : may some lionoiir- able individual ever be their defence ; and may afflictions fall upon him who does not propitiate the gods.

Of tho first Hro verses, the Jiiihi js K. The first five stanzas arc in tho Triahliibh metre ; that of the two last is Annshtuhh. From which generous prince, soliciting my accept- ance , I, Kakshtvat, unhesitatingly accepted a hundred mshUas, a hundred vigorous steeds, and a hundred bulls, whereby he has sjiread his imperishable fame through heaven. Ten chariots drawn by bay steeds, and carrying my wives, stood near me, given me by Swanaya ; and a thousand and sixty cows followed : these, after a short interval of time, did Kashivat deliver to lus father.

Forty bay horses, harnessed to the chariots, lead the procession in front of a thousand followers. The Pajras, the kinsmen of Kakshivat, rub dowm the high- spirited steeds, decorated with golden trappings. She, who, when her desires are assented to, clings as L I venerate Aoni, the invoker of the gods , the muni- ficent, the giver of dwellings, the son of strength : he who knows all that exists, like a sage v. We, the io. They have ijrcsentod substantial donations to him, as they give riches to a sage, and by resplendent means he grants us grace for our preservation : the worshipper presents gifts to Aone for preservation : he who pervades the many offerings made to him consumes them as rapidly as ho consumes forests : he matures the standing corn by his potency ; he destroys wliatever things are stationary by his potenejr 5.

Wo place near the altar the sacrificial food of him who is more conspicuous by night than by day : wo offer it to him who is scarcely alive by day : hence his. The descendants of Bheigu, celebrating him Agni in both his forms, glorifying him, aud paying him homage, proclaim his praises ; the descendants of Bheigu, rubbing I. For the radiant Agnt, who is the guardian cl all thrso treasures, has pouer to distribute them.

The deity, Biaht, and metre are the same as in the preceding Stikla. This Aam, the invoker of the gods, the assiduoits offerer of sacrifices, is generated of man, for the fulfilment of the duty of those who desire the fruit of pious rites, as well as for the diacliatgo of his own duty : ho is the bestower of all blessings on him who desires his friendship, and is wealth to such a one seeking for food : the un- obstructed offerer of oblations, he sits down, surrounded by ministering priests , on the most sacred spot of earth, upon the.

We jiropitiate that instrument of sacrifice by the path of sacrifice, by reverential salutation, and by ob- lations of clarified butter ; by oblations offered to the gods : and he acceiits oui offerings, and through his benignity quits not the rite until its close , the divinity whom the wind brought from afar for the service of Manx; : may ho come from afar to our sacrifice.

Agni, who is ever to be hymned, the giver of food, the showerer of benefits , comes immediately upon our 1. That Agnx, who is the pcriormtr of holy acts, the priest of the faniily, thinks in evory duelling of the im- perishable aacriflee ; ho thiuks of the aacrifico reminded by its celebration : for through such pious rite, he, the bestower of fit rewards, accepts all the offered oblations for the good of the worshipper ; whence he has become as a guest, fed abundantly with butter ; and the olfeteT of the oblations has become the roalizer of the rewards of the worship.

Inasmuch as all men offer in lioly rite food for his satisfaction in the blazing flames of Aoni, like the grains that are to he enjoyed by the winds, and like the viands that are to be given to him who solicits them ; therefore the wonshipper presents gifts to him, according to the extent of his opulence ; and he preserves us, w'hen oppressed by sin , from wiclasdness ; from overpowering malevolence and sin. The universal, mighty and imperious Agni holds riches in his right hand ; but.

Verily, Agni, thou bearest the oblation to evory one of the gods who desires it ; Agni grants blessings to every pious worship- per , and opens for him the gates of heaven. They, the devout , praise Agni, the involier of the gods , the iiosscssor of wealth, the lieloved, the thoughtful ; they have recourse to him as to a sovereign ; they have recourse to liim as the hearer of oblations : to him, who is tho life of all living beings , who knows all thiiigs, the olleiev of oblations, the object of worship, the sage : the saerod priests , desirous of afl!

The deity is Inuba ; tho Jiuihi and metic are unohaiigod. Accept his ofl'ermg, for thou who art without fault, art prompt to favour us amoug the pious offerers of oblations , aa thou acceptest this our praise. Hear our iuvoccation, Indra : thou who in various battles assooigted with the Maruts, art animated through their encoiu'agement ; and art able , with the Maruts, 1. Tliou, the subduer of adversaries , piercest every rain oonfining skin ; tbou overtakest, hero, every flying mortal cloud , and abandonest it when exhausted of its water : lor such glorious deed, Indra, 1 offer praise to thee ; to heaven ; to the self-glorifying Rtidra ; to MirRA; to each the benefactor ot mankind for such glorious deed.

Thou, Indra , who art the sustainer of the world , lemovest all the sins of man : present at our sacrifice, thou art the bearer of good things. May 1 be competent to utter praise for the Soma Jibation, sustaining eristence, which, like the deity to S 18 Rig-veda Translation U. May that libation o itself repress with chastisement the malevolence of him who ievi]e,s us ; lot the thief fall downwards and perish , like a little water running down a dedivitj'. We praise thee, Indra, with praises, nialdng known thy glory : we solicit, giver of riches, the wealth that bestows vigour, that is agreeable, durable, and the support of progeny.

May wc ever be possessed of abundant food, through the praises of thee, whom it is diflicult adequately to honour ; may we attain the adorable Indra by true and earnest invocations ; by invocations, offering sacriiicial food. Indra is jjowerful in the discomfiture of the malevo- lent by his self-glorifying aids, granted unto you and unto us : he is the tearor of the malevolent to pieces r the impetuous host that was sent against us by devouring foes to destroy us, has been itself destroyed : it ivill not reach us ; it will not do us harm.

Do thou, Indra, come to us with abundant riches by a path free from evil ; by a path unobstructed by Bakshasas : be with us when afar ; be with us when nigh ; favour us, whether afar or nigh, with the objects of our desires ; ever favour us with the objects of our desires. Do thou, Indra, sustain us with wealth that trauspoits roan beyond calamity ; for, enhanced great- ness accrues to thee, however mighty, from our thanlis i for thy protection, as it does to Metra for his powerful 1.

Deservedly-lauded Indba, preserve us from suffer- ing ; for thou art always verily the chastiser of the malevo- lent : thou, being divine, art the chastiser of the malevo- lent ; thou art the slayer of the wicked Bahim, the preserver of a pious worshipper , such os 1 am : for, asylum of all men , the progenitor has begolteii thee for this purpose , has begotten thee, asylum of all men , the destroyer of the Ealshasas. The deity, Bialii, and metio, ate ooutinued ; in the lost etanssa the metro is changed to Trialaubh.

Gome to US, Indpa, from afar ; not as this fire which is before ns, but like the ]iiouR institutor of sacri- fices, or like tlie royal lord of the constellations when going to his setting. Bearing olilations, we, along with the priests , invoke thee to accept the efiused juices , as sons invite a father to partake of food ; wp invoke thee, who art most entitled to reverence, to accept of the sacrificial viands. Drink, Indba, the Soma juice, that has beeu expressed by the stones, and sprinkled with the sacred grass, as a thirsty ox or a thirsty man hastens to a well.

Drink for thy exhilaration, for thy invigoration, for thy exceed- ingly great augmentation : let thy horses bring thee 20 Eig-veda Tbanslation [T. He Indra found the Soma treasure that had been brought from heaven, and hidden like the nestlings of a bird in a rock ; amidst a pile of vasl rocks inclosed by bushes : desiring to partake of the beverage , the thunder- er found it , as the chief of the Angirasas discovered , the hiding-place of the cows ; he opened the doors of the waters, the sources of food, when shut up in the clouds ; the sources of food, that were spread over the earth.

Indra, avIio att fully endowed with strength, Avith energy, Avith might, thou cuttest our enemies to pieces, as a wood-cuttor the l. Thou hast Awithout effort created the rivers that are to flow to the sea, like chariots bearing thee to sacri- fices , as those construct chariots who are desirous of going to battle ; the streams flowing hither have gathered together their water for a common purpose, like the coAvs that yielded all things to Mand ; that yield all things to man.

Men who are desirous of wealth have recited this thy praise, as a resolute and promdent man prepares a chariot for a journey : they have propitiated thee for their good : glorifying thee, sage Indra, as impetuous in con- flicts, they have praised thee as men praise a conqueror. For the salre of Atithigwa, the fierce Indba hurled Shajibaea from off the mountain, hp. Endowed with augmented vigour, lie hurled against the foes the wheel of the chariot of the sun ; aud, rudily of hue, deprived them of existence ; he, the sovereign lord, deprived them of existence.

As thou, sage Tndba. Showerer of benefits, de. Tho Aoity, Jlisii, and motrc arc nnrhaiiged ; Ibe hynm is divided into tliice Tiiehas, or triplets, aucoiding to tlio diQerout occasions on 'which the sevoval poitions axe ifcitod, mul tbc piiests to whom the portions aie lospertively assigned ; the first Triaha boing repeated by tho Maitrara wna ; the second, commencing with the thud stanza, by the Bramaahohliansi ; and tho thiid, beginning with tho fifth veise, by tho Achchhavalai.

Hoping to paT'tako of thy bounties, tbv worshippers hasten sevenslly in every rite to adore tlieo. Tho married couples, anxious to satisfy thee, and presenting oblations together, celebrate thy worship , for the sake of obtaining herds ol cattle ; pre. Indka oblations : thou well Icnowest that the. Thou hast chastised, Lord of Strength, the mortal who offers not sacrifice : thou hast rescued tliis ai aciou. Tndba, endowed with many excellences , do thou, who art exalted by our praises , and art well disposed towards us, slay the man who is unfriendly to us ; slay such a man, hero, with thy thunderbolt : kill him who sins against us ; ever most prompt to hoar, hear us : let every ill-intent towards us, such as alarms a wearied Rig-vkda Translation [1.

The deity, Riihi, and metre, are the same ; but in the last stanza Ihdba is oasooiated with Pabvata. Possessed of foimer opulence, Maohavan, thiougli thy bounty ; protected, Inora. The sacrifice of to-day bemg nigh, speak encouragingly to the. In the combat which secures heaven, Inora, tread- ing in the aiipropriate and straight paili of the active combatant , as well a. May thy treasures, Inora , be accirmuUted upon us ; may the treasures of thee who art auspicious be auspicious to us.

Tliy exploits, Iadra, are worthy to be gloriflccl ; nov, verily, as well as in former time. Thou, hero, tearost our enemies entirely to pieces ; the tearor of foes, the thunderbolt , rends tlicm entirely asunder. Devourer of foes , having trampled on the heada of the malignant hosts , crush them with thy wide-spreading foot ; thy vast widu-spreodiug loot. That thou hast destroyed, by thy as. Hurl headlong, Iadka, the vast cloud : hear our. Offering libations, the wmrshipjAer obtaims a safe asylum ; offering libations, ho destroys his prostrate foes ; he destroys the enemies of the gods ; abounding with food, and unsubdued by adversaries , he hopes to attain, when offering libations, infinite riches , for Indb.

Let thy swift coimeTs, Vayu, bring thee c[tuchly liithei' that thou mayst be the fir. May our upraised, diseviniinating, and sincere praise be aci'eptnble to thy mind : come with thy steed-yoked car lor the libation to be presented to thee ; come, Vavu, for grunt- ing the objects of our norship. Vayu yokes to his car his two red horses ; Vayu yolccs his pnrplo steeds : Vayu yokes his two unwearied coursers to his car to bear their burthen ; for most able are they to bear the burthen. Arouse, Vayu, the in- telligent sacrificer , as a gallant awakens his sleeping mistress : summon heaven and earth ; light up the dawn ; light up the dawn, to receive thy.

For thee, the brilliant dawns, rising from afar, spread abroad their auspicious raiment in inviting rays ; in variegated and glorious rays : for thee, the cow that 28 Eia-VEDA Teanslaiion [I. The timid and anxious worshipper praises thee, who art auapirious, for driving away thieves ; for thou defendest us from all beings, as the reward of our righteou3nea. H : thou proteotest us from the tear of evil spirits, as the reward of our righteousness.

I, The Bislii is, the same ; the three first stanzas are addressorl to Vayu j the next five to Indra also ; and the last to Vatu alone ; the metre is the same, except in the seventh and eighth stanzas, in which it is AaHi. Approach our strewn grass, Vayu, with thy thou- sand steeds, to partake of the offered food, jirepared for the lord of the.

Omie with liundreds and thoasands ol thy steeds to oiu' sacrifice to partake of the sacrificial food ; come , Vayu, to partake of the oblations : this is thy reasonable portion, and it is radiant along with the sun ; the juico. Let the chariot drawn by the Niyuls convey you both, InTiBA and VAva, to the sacrifice , ior our preser- vation, and to jiartako of the consecrated viands ; to partake, Vayu, oI the oblations : drink of the.

These Soma juices, poured out in our rites, and home by the priests, are prepared lor you both : the pure 30 Eio-veda Teanslation [1. Pass, Vayu , by the many sleeping worshippers , and go u ith Inura to the house where the stone resounds ; Indra and VAVxr , go to that dwelling ; go where the word of truth is manifest ; go where.

Then, accept the libations of the sweet juice at the sacrifice in which the triumphant priests stand round the rock-horn plant : may they ever he victorious for us : for yon together the cows distil their milk ; the offering of barley is dressed ; and never for thee, Vayu , will the cows grow meagre ; never will the kine be carried off by thieves.

These thy horses, excellent Vayu, strong of limb, youthful and full of vigour, bear thee through the space between heaven and earth : growing are they in bulk, and strong as oxen : Iboy are not lost in the firmament, but hold on their speed, unretarded by reviling ; difficult are they to be arrested as the beams of the sim ; difficult are they to be arrested by force. The Biahi is the same ; the deities aie Mura and Yabura ; the metre is Atyaahti, except in the last verse, in which it is Triahtvbh, 1.

Ofer most excelleut and ample adoration, and reverential oblation, to those two deities who have existed I. Your worshipper has prepared gi'ound for the altar , free from defect, radiant with sacrificial fire , and con- ferring heaven : come to it together every day, you who are vigilant ; every day at sacrifices recehc invigorated energy by coming hither , sons of Anm, lords of muni- ficence : of those two, Mitea is the animator of mankind, and so is Varuna ; Aryaman likewise is the animator of mankind.

Whatever individual offers adoration to Mitra and Varuua, do you preserve him entirely unharmed from 32 Eig-vt5da Translation II. Praise Indea, Agni, the brilliant Aeyaman, and Bdaga, so that, enjoying long life, we may be blessed with progeny : we may be happy through the pirotecting virtues of the Soma. Worsliipping Indea, and favoured by the Maruk, may we rely upon the protection of the gods ; and may we, affluent through their bounty , enjoy the felicity which Agni, Mitea, and Vaeuna arc bestowing upon us.

Come, Mitea and Vaeuna, to our sacrifice ; where Ave express the Soma juice with stones : these juices mixed with milk are exhilarating ; these juices are exhilarating ; come to us, royal divinities, dwellers in heaven, and our protectors ; these juices are mixed with milk for you, Mitea and Vaeuna ; they are pure, mixed with milk. They milk for you two wilh stones, that succulent creeper, like a productive milch cow ; they milk the Soma plant with stones : come to us as our protectors ; bo pro.

The deity is Posuan j the Bishi and metre aie the same. The greatness of the strength of the many-worshipped Pushan is universally Uuded ; no one detracts from his praise ; his praise displeases no one. Desirous of hajjpiness, I adore him, whose protection is ever nigh ; who is the source of felicity ; who, when devoutly wor- shipped, blends with the thoughts of all his worshippers ; who, though a deity, is united with the sacrifice.

Free from anger, and liberal of gifts, be nigh to us, Ajashwa, for the acceptance of this our offering ; be mgh to those, Ajashwa, who solicit food : we have re- course to thee, destroyer of enemies, with pious hymns. I never cease, Pushan, accepter of offerings, to think of thee ; I never disregard thy friendship. The SiaM is the same j the deities are various, under the ooUeotive designation ol Visuwadevas.

The first verse is addressed to Aqhi, IirsBA, and Vayv j the second to Mitba and Vabtina ; the three next to the Asuwins ; in the sixth, Indba is again addressed, Aohi in the seventh, and the Mabuts in the eighth! The metro also vanes ; that ol the filth verse is Bnhati, and of the eleventh TrisJtiubh ; in the rest it is -A tyaaUi j after which we take leave for the present of thjs long, oomplioated, and embarrassing oonstruction.

May our prayers bo heard. I place before me Aqni with reverence ; we have recourse to his celestial might ; we have recourse to Ihdra and to Vayu : which doing, a new hymn has been addressed by us to the radiant navel of the earth ; and thereupon may our pious rites attain the gods ; may our pious rites attain the presence of the gods. Miiba and Varuha, bestow upon us abundantly First Mandala 35 I. AsHwrws, men who desire to glorify you with their hymns, eause, as it wore, their jiraises to be heard, propi- tiating you with oblations ; for, from you, who arc possess- ed of all opulence, they obtain every kind of wealth and abimdiint food.

Dasbas, the tellies of the wlicols of you hoiiey-ladjn car drop honey, earned in your golden cat. Wo have placed you, Daseas, m your golden three-shafted chariot, going by an easy road to heaven, liumiliators of cuenne,s , and principal regulators of the ram.

Enriched by holy rites, grant as, hy day and night, all good things , on account of our pious acts : never may your donations, never may out donations , bo with- held. Agni, listen attenlively -vshen thou art praised by us, and repeat those praises to the gods who are entitled to worship ; to the royal deities entitled to 'worship : on which account the gods gave to the Aiigirasas the milch cow which Abyaman milked tor thee , the maker of all , together with the gods ; that cow the nature of which thou hast.

The ancient Dadhyanob, Angieas, Phiyamedha, Kanwa, Atri, Manu, have known my birth : they who were of old and Manu have known my progenitors ; for of them is long life amongst the gods, and in them is om existence : for the sake of their high station, I adore the gods with praise ; I worship Indba and Agni with praise. Let the invoker of tlie gods offer sacrifice, and may they, desirous of the ofiering, partake of the accept- able libation : BRiHASPATihimseK, desiring the libation , celebrates worship with libations ; -with copious and excellent libations.

We catch from a distant quarter 1. Gods who are eleven in heaven; who are eleven on earth; and who are eleven dwelling with glory in mid-air ; may ye be pleased with this our sacrifice. Both his associated mothers, blackened by com- bustion , are in movemeiil, and give birth to an infant, whose tongue of fianie gkn,s in the east : who dissipates darloiess ; who rapidlj'' issues forth ; who is readily developed ; who is ever to be cherished, and is the augmenter of the prosperity of his parent, the institutor of the rite.

The lames of Agni , light-moving, dark-tracked, C[uick consuming , capricious, restless, lambent, fanned by the wind, wide-spreading, and ensuring liberation to the devout , are kuidled for the benelit ol the pious reverencer of holy priests. Thereupon those fliunes of Agm extend together in all directions, dispersing gloom, and spreading great light along the path of darkness ; when Agni illummos repeatedly the whole earth, and proceeds panting, thunder- ing, and roaring aloud.

Ife stoops down among the bushes as if embellishing them with his lustre , and rushes roaring like a bull amongst a herd of cows : thence increasing in intensity, he enhances the fierceness of his form, and is diftlcult to be arrested as a formidable animal , when ho brandishes his horns. Now hidden, now displayed, be seizes on the fuel , as if understanding the purpose of the worshipiier , and even reiioses amidst the conscious flames : again they break forth, and repair to the divine fire of sacrifice , blending with which they give a different luminous form to their parents, heaven and earth , 8.

The curving tresses of the flames embrace him, Agni , and when expiring spring aloft again to greet their coming lord ; rescuing them from decrepitude, he comes sounding aloud, generating in thorn intenser animation and unimiiaired vitality. Licking up the verdant vesture of the mother of all things, earth , the rapid Agni jiroceeds with resounding existences : granting sustenance to every 1. Shine, Agni, in our opulent abodes , vivifying, showering blessing, s , bounteous, casting off infantine glimmerings ; blaze fiercely , repelling repeatedly, like a coat of mail, our enemies in combats.

May this oblation," Agni, carefully placed upon the rugged but agreeable pile of fuel , be most acceptable to thee, so that the pure radiance of thy person may shine brightly, and thou mayest grant us wealth. Bestow, Agni, upon our excellent patron a boat ever fitted with oam and feet, one that may render our posterity pro,spei'ous, and may bear manluiid across the ocean of life to felicity.

Agni, be propitiated by this our earnest praise, and may heaven and earth, and the spontaneously-flowing streams , provide for us the produce of the herd, and of the field ; and may the purple coursers of the dawn bestow upon ns abundant food through a length of days. The deity, RUhi, and metre, are continiied.

Verily, that visible radiance of the divine Agni has been. First, he reposes on the earth as the digestive 40 Rig-veda Teanslation [ 1. As powerful priests extract by the force of prayer , this Acmi from his primitive seat, for the evolvement of his mighty form ; as the wind arouses him lurking in the hiding-place of the altar , for the sake of offering oblations now as of old : 4. As from the excellence of the nutritious offering , he, Agni , is brought forth, and the consumable branches rise amidst the fiames ; and as both the institutor of tlio rite and the priest combine for his generation, there- fore has he been generated, pure, youthful, anil radiant.

Pious worshippers then adore the invoker of the gods , for the propitiation of the dwellers in heaven, as such men adore a powerful prince, since the many- lauded, and all -upholding Agni knows how by holy act and bodily strength to bring together the gods and their mortal worsliipper for the sake of obtaining mutual sustenance. Since the adorable Agni. Like a chariot drawn by ropes, Agni, set in move- ment by his own revolving members his flames , procced.

Most youthful Agni, Cor the good of him who praises thee and offers thee libations, thou make. Aqni, possessing eminent fitness for supreme sovereignty, has been glorified by us with holy rites, and with hymns ; Let all who are present, as well as we our- selves, enriched liy his favour , shout aloud the praise of Agn: , as loudly as the sun causes the rain-cloud to thunder.

Agni, Avho art SAhncDnA, bring the gods to-day to the worshipper , whose ladle is uplifted : extend the merit of former sacrifice to the giver of the offering , by whom the Soma libation is poured forth. The pure, purifying, wonderful Naeashansa, an adorable god among gods, having come from heaven, thrice mixes the sacrifice with the sweet juice of the Soma. Agni, who art Iltta, bring hither Indra, the wonder- ful, the beloved : thia my praise is recited, bright-tongned, before thee.

The priests, bearing ladles, are strewing the sacred grass in this holy aacrilioe, to prepare a god-frequented and well-spread abode for Tndha. Let tlie bright, separable doors, the augmenters of sacrifice, the purifiers of rites, tlie desired of many, be set open for the gods to enter. Beautiful night and inoruing, ever hymned, ever associated, progeny of tune , parents of sacrifice, sit doivn of yoiu' own good will ou the sacred grass.

May the two pleasing-tongued receivers of praise, the divine and sago invokers of the gods , officiate to-day at this our sacrifice, which confers rewards and attains heaven. May the pure Hotba, placed among the gods, and Bhabati, among the Marnts, and may tho adorable Ila, Sabaswati, and Maui, sit down upon the sacred grass. Vanaspati, Itorc present of your own accord, convey our offerings to the gods ; the divine and intelligent Agni accepts the oblations for the deities.

Priests , present the oblalion with Swaha to Indba, in the form of the Gaijutra, along with Pusban and the Maeuts ; also to the assembled gods, and to Vayu. Approach, Indra, to partake of the oblations consecrated with Swaha ; approach and hear the invo- cation, as they invoke thee to the sacrifice. As soon as born, was that Aoni nianifcsted to Maiarishw-an in the liiglicat atmosphere, and his radiance, kindled by vigorous etlorl,, spread through heaven and.

His radiance is uudecaying ; the rays of him who is of pleasing aspect, are everywhere visible and bright ; the intensely shining, all-pervading, unceasing, imdecay- ing rays of Agni, desist not from their fimctioiis. Bring to his own abode with hymns that Agni, the poissessor of all riches, whom the descendants of Bheigu placed by the strength of all beings upon the navel of the earth : for, like Vabuna, he reigns solo monarch over all treasui'e.

Agni, who, dike the roaring of the winds, like a victorious host, like the thunderbolt in heaven, is not to be arrested, devours and destroys our foes with sharpened I. May Agni be ever desirous of our praise"; may the giver of wealth satisfy our utmost expectation with riches ; may the inspirer of our devotion hasten our riles to fruition. I glorify him, the radiaiit-lmibed Agni.

The kindler ol the sacrificial fire propitiates AoNi, of glistening form ; the upholder of your eereniony, like a friend ; well kindled and well sujiplied with fuel ; blazing brightly at holy rites, he illumiiieb our pure and pious observances. Agni, never heedless ol us , guard us with never heedless, auspicious, and joy-beatowing cares : do thou, who art desired by all , protect us, and those born of us, with unobstructed, uuovercome, and never-shrmbering vigilance.

The deity, liishi. The drops of rain, enveloped by the solar rays , are renewed in the dwelling of the divine sun , their birth-place ; when he, Agni , abides cherished on the lap of the waters, then the world drinks the nectareous rain , with which he, as the lightning , associates. The two priests, the Hotri and Adhwaryu , oC equal honour, and alike assiduous, labouring mutually for a common object, combine the form of Aoni with their respective functions ; whereupon he to whom the ob- lation is to be offered, collects the drops of clarified butter , as Bhaqa accepts the worship of all , or as a charioteer gathers the reins of the horses that draw' the car.

He, whom the two, a pair of equal power, dwelling in the same place, and engaged in the same ceremony, worship night and day : he. The ten fingers intertwined propitiate that divine Agni , whom wo mortals invoke for protection : he darts his rays like swift arrows from a bow, and accepts the new praises utleredl by those who crowd round the altar. Thou, Aoni, rcignest over the dw'ellers in lujaveu, and over those of earth, according to thine ow'n will , SIS a herdsman over his herd , and those two, heaven and earth , bright, vast, adorable, beneficent, and sound- ing agreeably , partake of the oblation.

Aoni, who conferrest happiness, who acceptest oblations, who was born for sacrifice, and art the per- former of good works, bo pleased with this rite , attend to this prayer : for thou art in presence of all the world , art visible to all , art pleasant in their sight, and art their refuge, like a bountiful distributor of food.

The deity, Hiahi, and metre, are the same. They ask of Aoni. To him the sacrificial ladles are directed ; to him our praises aie addressed ; he alone hears all ray prayers ; he 13 the instigator of many, the transporter across the world , the iustruineut of sacrifice, the unmtennittinff preserver of mankind , and gentle as an infant : pro- vided with the preparations of sacrifice , he accepts the oblation.

When the priest proceeds to effect his developmenty he is at once manifested ; and as soon as engendered, is associated wdth his objects ; he provides for the gratifi- cation of his worshipper , placidly engaged in the agreeable rite , when the oblations that desire his acceptance , reach him present at the sacrifice.

He, the searcher, the accessible, the dweller in woods, has been placed amidst the fuel , as in the similitude of 48 Eig-veda Translation [1. The deity, Bhhi, and metro, are the same. Glorify the three headed, seven-rayed Agni ; who i. The great showerer of benefits has pervaded these two w'orlds ; undecaying and adorable, he is over present, bestowing protection ; he iilaces his foot on the summit of the earth, and his radiant flames lick the udder of the firmament.

There are two well-disposed milch cows together approaching their common progeny, and fully nourialiing. Experienced sages bring the invincible Agni to his station on the altar ; cherishing him in manifold ways in their hearts : desirous of propitiatiug him, they AvoTship the boou- shedding Agni ; and to those men he is manifest as the Sun. He is willing to be seen in the ten regions of space ; the victorious, the adorable, the source of life to great.

The doity, JlMi, and znetie, are the same. How have thy shining and evaporating rays , Aewi, supported life and supplied food ; so that, enjoying both, the devout worshippers , possessing sons and grandsons, may repeat the hymns of the sacrifice.

Youthful Agni. Tliy fo. When a wicked man , with twofold malignity of thought and speech , obstructing our offerings, an4 re- fraining from gifts himself , reviles us, may his prayer be heavy on him, and involve his person m the conse- quences of his evil words.

When, Son of Strength, a man skilful in deception assails another man with a doubly malignant prayer , do thou, Agni, duly propitiated, protect him who worships thee from its effects ; consign us not to misfortune. The doily, lliakt, aud luetro, aio the same.

The wind, penetrating amidst the fuel , has excited Agni , the invoker of the gods , the multiform, the minister of all the deities, whom they have established 4 50 Rio-veda Teanslation [1. Let not my enemies prevail against me, when presenting acceptable oblations , for Agni is desirous of mj' so oEered adoration, and all they the gods are gratified by the pious acts of me, the reciter of their praise, and the celcbrator of the sacrifice.

Him, whom the worshippers lay hold of in his per- petual abode, they detain by their praises, and the holders convey him diligently to the sacrifice, as rapid couriers, harnessed to a car, bear the rider to bis destination. The destroyer, Agni , consumos mimeroiis trees , by hiB dames, and shines with manifold radiance in the forest : the favouring wind blows the dames onwards day by day, like the swift arrows of an archer.

The blind of uiiellect , or those who see not physi- cally , detract not from his glory, whom no enemies, no malevolent adversaries, harm, even whilst yet in his embryo condition ; for his constant eucouragers defend him. The deity and Rishi are ttio same ; the metre is 7aw y'o. Agni, the lord of great wealth, the granter of desires , comes to the place of sacrifice ; he, the lord of lords, comes to the place of affluence, the altar ; the stones prepare the libation for him as be approaches. He, who is, as it were, the generator of men as well as of heaven and earth, of whom creation has imbibed 1.

He who ia wise, and goes wheresoever he will , like the rapid ethereal wind , has lighted up the delighful. Ho 18 the offerer of oblations, who is of tivolold birth ; and, through desire for sacrjiicial food, has in his keeping all good things : the niau who presents offer- ings to him is the parent of cxcellont offspring. The deity and SUhi are the same ; the metre is Vahnih.

Presenting many offermgs, I address thee, Agxi, ever coming into thy xiresence like a servant in the dwell- ing of a mighty master. I ask thee also to withliold thy favour from tJiose two godless persons , from the rich man, who, acknow - ledging tliee not as his lord, is chary of gifts at sacred rites, and from him who rarely jiraiscs the gods.

Sage Agni, the niuctal who propitiates thee be- comes a moon in heaven, the most eminent of the great deities : may we. Heaven and eartli have been torrifie.! Since they, the priests , like friends, have prepared for you both, Mitba and V. For the sake of obtaining great vigour, showereis of benefits , men glorify your birth from heaven and earth, which is to be e'XtoUed, inasnmob as you bestow his desires upon the womhipiier as the reward of his sacrifice, and accept the rite that is solemnized with praise and obUtiou.

Powerful divinities, most acceptable to you both is that siJot, where you are worshipped : accepters of sacrifice, proclaim the great ceremony as duly performed ; for you two connect the efficacious and comprehensive rite with the vast heaven, like a cow with a bnithen. You bring the cattle upon the earth to their favourite pasture, whence , protected from harm by your power, the milch kine, yielders of milk, return to their stalls : they fsTj aloud to the sun in heaven above.

Fiest Mandala. The tresses of Agni minister, Mitra and VaBiUna, to your sacrifice, when you honour with your presence the sacrificial chamber :. Come to the devout worshipper , who. Accepters of sacrifices, you are the first whom wor- sliippers propitiate wdth offerings, the produce of the cow ; like the application of the mind m the first in- stance to the results of the senses ; hynius prompted by thoughts wholly intent upon you, celebrate your praise ; do you, with humble minds, bestow upon us wealth.

You distribute food, accompanied by riches ; you bestow' upon us, leaders of sacrifice , wealth, ample, and defended by your wise ]iro visions : the days with the nights have not attained your divinity ; neither have the rivers, nor have the Asutas, and they have not obtained your wealth. Rig-veda Translation LI. Bivinitios, JNshi, and metre, the eame, 1. Wo behold the lover of the maiden dawns , ever in movement, never resting for an instant, wearing in- separable and diffusive radiance , the beloved abode of Mitra and Varuna.

Without steeds, without stay, be is nevertheless borne swift-moving and loud-soiuiding ; he travels, ascend- ing higher and higher, connecting the inconceivable mys- tery of sacred rites with the radiance abiding in Mitra and Varuna, which men , eulogizing, glorify, 6. UJ Fxbst Mandala 57 residue of the offerings for his eating, and wore. Divine Mitea and Vabuma, may I render the ob- lation acceptable to you with reverence and prayer ; may the sacred rite enable us to overcome in battles, and may the heavenly rain be to ns the means of satisfying our wants.

Pirimtioa, Jiishi, and metro, the aaiuo. Mighty Mitea and Vahuna, rli. The imrpoac of worshipping you, Mitea and Varuna, is not the performance, but even by so much I may attain to your glory, and there is acquittivnce of my duty ; for when the priest offers yon oblations in sacrifices, then the pious man, showorers of benefits , being desirous of worshipping you, obtains felicity.

May the divine cows, and the waiens. ThQ Stahi and metre eio the same ; but the deity is Vishnu. Earnestly 1 glorify the exploits of Vibhntj, who made the tliree worlds ; who sustained the lofty aggregate site of the spliores ; thrice traversing the whole ; who is praised by the exalted.

Vishnu Ls thorelorc glorified, that by his prowess he is like a fearful, ravenous, and mountain-haunting wild heust, and because that in his three paces all worlds abide. May acceptable vigour attend Vishnu, who abides in prayer, the hyniiied of many, the showeror of benefits , who alone made, by three stefis, this spacious and durable- aggregate of the three worlds. Whose three imperishable paces, filled with ambrosia, delight mankind with sacred food ; who verily alone upholds the three clemcnls, aud earth and heaven.

May 1 attain his favourite path, in which god-seeking men delight ; the path of that wide-stepping Vishnu, in whoso exalted station there is a perpetual flow ol felicity ; for to such a degree is he the friend of the pious. We pray to Vishnu that you may both go to those regions where the many-pointed and wide-spreading rays of light expand ; for here the supreme station of the many-hymned, the showeier of benefits , shines withy great splendour.

The deities, are Vishnu and Inbki, the fiist triplet being addressed to the latter; the JRisfii is the same ; the metre is Jagah. Indra and Vishnu, the devout worshipper glorifies the radiant approach of you two, who are the grautens of desires, and who bestow upui the mortal who worships you an immediatoly-recoivablc reward ,. I'iiei'efore, verily, wo celebrate tlie manhood of th. Man, glorifying Vishnu , tracks two stops of that heaven-beholding deity , hut he apprehends not tlu- third ; nor can the soaring-winged birds pursue it.

He causes, by his gyrations, ninety and four periodical revolutions, like a circular wheel, vast of body, and evolv- ing in many forms, through the praises addressed to him! The deity ie VisuKir ; the Mihi and metre are aa before. Be to us , Vishnu, hke a friend, the giver of happi- ucs,s, the acceptor of oblations, abounding ivith food, the grantor oJ protection, and every way accessible ; on which account thy praise m to be repeatedly recited by the wise, and thy worship to be celebrated by the offerer of oblations, 2.

He who presents offoriugs to VisiiNU, the ancient, the creator, the recent, the self-born ; he who celebrates the groat birth of that imghty one ; lie verily possessed of abundance, attains the station that is to be sought by all. Hyninecft, propitiate of your own accord that ancient Yisnifu,. The royal Vaeuna associates himself with the saorifLce of the pioua worshipper, assisted by the company of the priests : the Askwins unite with it : Vishnu, with his friend Indka , possesses supreme hcaven-con- f erring power, and sits upon the clouds, 6.

The divine Vishnu, the best of the doers of good deeds, who came to the pilous institutor of the rite, to as. Agni is awakened upon oaiili ; the Sun rises : the spreading dawn, exhilarating all by her radiance, has dispersed the darkness ; harness, tliorefore , Asiiwins, your chariot, to come to the sacrifice , that the divine Savitri may animate all beings to the performance of their several duties.

When, Ashwins, you harness your bounty-shedding chariot, refresh our strength with trickling honey : bestow abundant food upon our people : may we acquire riches in the strife of heroes. May the three-wheeled car of the Ashwins, drawn by swift horses, laden with honey, three-canopied, filled with treasure, and every way auspicious, come to our presence, and bring prosperity to our people and our cattle.

Bring us, Asiiwins, vigour ; animate us with your honied speech ; jirnlong our existence ; wijie away our sin,s ; destroy our fops ; be over our associates. You, Ashwins, siistaiu the germ in all moving crea- tures : you are in the interior of all beings : do you, showerers of benefits, supply for our own use fire and water aud the trees of the forest. The deitios e. Grantors of dwellings, Avho may make you offerings so propitiatory of that your good w ill, that invoked by our adoration, to the site, of the altar, you may entertain favourable intentions towards us , and grant us kine rich in milk, coining with minds made up to grunt the desires of the worshipper.

In like manner, Ashwins, a. May the praise addressed to you, Asswms, preserve the. Let not the inateriial waters. The deities are HE. I glorify Avitli sacred rites the mighty JJ coven and Earth, the augnienters of. Verily I propitiate, by my invocations, the mind of the benevolent father, and the great and sixmtaueoiis affection of the mother of all beings ; The parents, with kindness, have secured, by tlicir excellent jirotections, the vast and manifold immortality of their progeny.

These, your children, the performers of good works, and of goodly appearance, recognize you as their great 62 Rio-veda Translation [1. Those provident and intelligent sisters, the rays of light , conceived of the same womb, ever united with each other , and dwelling in the same abode, mete out all things : knowing their functions , and bright-shining, they spread in ever new directions throughout the radiant firmament.

We solicit to-day of the divine sun, his favour being propitiated, that wealth which is desirable. Benignant Heaven and Earth, bestow upon us riches, consisting of habitations and hundreds of cattle and the like. The doitioB, Bishi, and metro, are the same. Those two, the divine Heaven and Earth, are the diffusers of happiness on all, encouragers of truth, able to sustain the water of the rains , auspicious of birth, and energetic in action : in the interval between whom proceeds the pure and divine Sun for the discharge of his duties.

Wide-spreading, vast, unconnected, the father and mother of all beings , they two preserve the worlds. Resolute, as if for the good of embodied beings , are Heaven and Earth, and the father has invested every thing with visible forms. The pure, and the resolute son of these parents.

He it is,. Glorified by us, grant to us. Heaven and Earth, abundant food and great strength ; whereby we may daily multiply mankiud ; be. The Bnaivs are the deities ; Dibohatamas is still the Bishi ; the metre is Jagati, except in the last stanza, in ehich it is TrUktubh, f. Is this our senior or our junior wlio has come to us ; has he come upon a message from the gods ; what is it we should say 1 Aoni, brother, we revile not the ladle which is of exalted race ; Verily we a.

Make fourfold the single ladle ; so the gods com- mand you ; and for that purpose am I come, sous of Sudkanwan : if you accomplish this, you will be entitled to sacrifices along with the gods. Then said they, in answer to Agxi, the messenger of the gods. Tbakslation LI. When Twasiitei said. Let us slay those who have profaned the ladle, designed for the drinlang of the gods ; then they made use of other names lor one another, as the hbation wa.

Sons of SoDiiANWAisf, from a hidclcss cow you have formed a living one : by your marvellous acts you have made your aged parents young : from one horse you have fabricated another : harness now your chariot, and repair unto the gods. They, the gods , have said, Sons of Sudhanwan, drink of this water, the Sonia juice ; or drink that which has been filtered throngb the Mwija grass ; ox if you be pleased with neither of those, be exhilarated by that which is drunk at the third daily sacrifice.

Waters are the most excellent, said one of them : Agni is the most excellent, said another : the third Fibsi Manxjala 65 I. One [H urs tlie red WHler. The Sun replies. Sons of iStrcngth. Let neitker Mitra nor Vabuna, Akvaman, Ayo, Indra, Kiuhuksiitn, nor tke Jilaruts, censure iia ; wlien we proclaim, in the uaciifice tlie virtues of the swift liorsc sprung from the gods. When they, the priests , bring the prepared ufioring to the presence of the horse , who has been bathed and decorated with rich trappings , the various-coloured goat going before him, bleating, becomes an aecepiable offernig to Inuba and Pushan.

This goat, the portion of Pushan, fit for all the gods, is brought first with the fleet courser, so that Twash- TRimay prepare him along with the horse, as an acceptnhle preliminary offering for the bacrificiiil food. When the priests at the eeasou of the ceremony lead forth the horse, the offering devoted to the gods, thrice round t he.

The invoker of the gods, the minister of the rite, the offerer of the oblation, the kindler of the fire, the bruiser of the Soma plant, the director ol the ceremony, the sage superintendent of the whole : do yon replenish the rivers hy this well-ordered, well-conducted, sacrifice.

Whether they be those who cut the sacrificial post, or those who hear the post, or those who fasten the 1 1. G] First Mandala 07 rings on tlie top ol tliu post, to whiclt the horse is hound ; or tliose ulio ] repaTo the vtssols in which the food of the JioT. May my dc. May the. Whatever the flies may eat of the raw flesh of the horse ; whatever grease is smeared uiion the brush or upon the axe ; what is smeared upon the hands or the nails of the immolator.

Whatever undigested grass fall from his bidly ; w'hatevcr particle of raw flesh may remain ; let the iiu- molators make the whole free from defect, and so cook the pure offering that it may be perfectly dressed. Whatever portion of thy. Who will, however, when he is awake, continue to waste - his time and energy in explaining the phenomena which 1 he thought his duty to do in his dream?

When Mr. Amourism is an Eternal Truth Shdshvatasyacha dhar — 30 masya — B. His manifestations and His Body are all of spiritual form ; ignoring these spiritual forms and manifestations they call Him formless. Aksharam Brahma paramam suggests in XIV. Thus, Amourism is the culmination of Vedftn- tism. Kallen about the instrument, as the means recommended therein is the same as the end itself to be secured, viz.

Amourism Amourism, culmi- nation of Ved- ntism. Amourism identifi- es Religion with Philosophy. There arises a worship -of the instrument. And about this worshipful object is it that men fight their greatest quarrels in science and religion and philosophy. John, Chapter IV. In his waking state, his natural love of the self becomes the love of the King. Such a one does not enjoy or suffer — that he leaves to his lower self that produced the causes. He is but the calm and silent watcher of the Karma that brought about his present incarnation and exhausts itself at the close of that life, and he goes before his Lord, free from all eternity.

Love for whom? For the Supreme Lord, Ishvara. Bhakti cannot be used to fulfil any desires, itself being the check to all desires. When all thoughts, all words and all deeds are given up unto the Lord, and the least forgetfulness of God makes one intensely miserable, then pure love has begun.

This is the highest form of love ; because therein is no desire for reciprocity, which desire is in all human love. Love is higher than works, than Yoga, than knowledge. Now, what is God 1? As to Dispassion LJheworaWp. John, IV. But how is Love to be secured? It is to be secured by the faithful hearing and singing.

Lord Chaitanya speaks as follows : —. Therefore, I tell you of the signs of Pure Faith. Leaving all other desires, worship of others, knowledge and work devote all your organs to the cultivation of Krishna. For, in the said family was born the Supreme Brahma in the form of man and known as Krishna. Madusudana iB Brahma. In the Shruti we also have Vfisudeva recognised as Supreme Brahma. Lastly, what is Man, the Individual Soul Jivdtmd , who is the worshipper?

Similarly, if God, the Universal Soul, Who is the Spirit and man, the Individual Soul, who is His reflection are both proved to be in nature nothing but Love, we must know what matter , of which the Uniyerse is com- posed, is. He is the only accredit- ed Prophet of the world who held women in the highest respect and looked upon them as the born saviours of their ruder bro- thers. He is the genius of East and West, of ancient Bhara- tavarsha and Hellas, combined in one and He alone of all the greatest born teachers, leaders and rulers of mankind had possessed in His Person the noblest element of Truth, Good and Beauty.

The religion of Shri Krishna is the religion of every genuine human heart and conscience and He it is who had un- reservedly proclaimed Himself to be one in aim and origin with all the most sacred Prophets and'. Teaohers, Poets and Preceptors of every land and age. Kutastha is he who is formed without exception in the Buddhi of all creatures from BrahmS. The stars are held together by gravitation. Gravitation is attraction and that is Love. All chemical combinations take place through the force of chemical affinity.

That is Love between atom and atom. Love between atom and atom is called affinity. Love between one planet and another is called Gravitation. Love between molecules is called Affinity. This book is held together by the force of Cohesion. Cohesion is Love. The whole world is like the waves and ripples in one great ocean of Love, and science has shown. Magne- tism and Electricity, what is there in them?

You find Attraction. Heat seems to disunite apparently, seems to separate particles, but science proves by looking at matter from another stand-point, that which is dissolution or separation from one stand-point, is love and attraction from another stand-point. The whole world is simply the eddies, the ripples, in the ocean of Force. Realize that. That same power, energy of force is called Love. Truth itself is the eternal vibration which originates the vibratory powers of thought.

Modern science proves that every 40 solid is only a rate of vibration, or mode of motion and the Roetgen X rays give doubters an opportunity to occularly demonstrate that fact. Then every solid is only solidified thought, and therefore the manifestation of truth or God. Nature is God manifest. If truth itself is God, it is easy to believe in its omnipresence and omniscience and that each atom is omnipotent potentially. If man is the power to think, it is easy to believe in the omnipotence of thought.

It would, of course, be as omnipotent as its source, for the power to think of one thing implies the power to think of any other. As thought is vibration, and truth its co-existent source, it is easy to see the connec- tion and oneness between God, man and so called matter which science proves is only a rate of vibration. God in His infinite mercy has provided Law to every nation according to its peculiar The words of God.

The Vedas for instance, are intend- 1 For not the hearers of the Law are just before God, hut the doers of the Law shall be justified. For when the Gentiles, which have not the Law, do by nature the things con- tained in the Law, these, having not the Law are a Law unto themselves ; which show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another — Romans II.

Rajas and Tamas respectively. Now of all these books, according to the modern Savants of the West, the oldest 1 are the Vedas of the "Vedas, the oldest Hindus, This mass of writings call- writings. And this know- ledge is what is meant by the Vedas Vida-to know. Who is beyond all darkness and all division. Each of them is- divided into Upanishads Eternal Spiritual Truths and the Mantras incantations, hymns and ceremonies, the prac- tice of which cleanses the impurities of the mind and body.

As, of all the parts of the body it is the head above the shoulders alone that enables us to make out persons, so, it is the Yajus which determines the Self by separating it from the differ- - ent sheaths in which it is enclosed. We are told there that at and the origin J , ,.

The combination of the two viz. This second wave which arose through the pre- ponderance of Rajas is called Gunamayi Mfiyfi the illu- sion of the qualities , Avidyfi ignorance , Trjguna 3 Sutra 1 1 Annamaja Gross or dense body , 2 Prfinamaya Etheric double , 3 Manomaya Mental or.

The first is also called Stbula Deb a. Vide Chap. This is, like the flywheel in machinery, the cause of all motion and activity in the universe, which -is necessarily the result of the reflection 3 of the Sun of Brahma coming in contact with the water of Avidyfi or Ignorance. That which is reflected in Ahankftra is Vi nit a. Chaitanya Tasmddvirddajdyata — Shruti. We are told in the Paingal Upanish- ad that Ishvara, having taken a small portion of the quintuplicated Mahabhutas the great elements , made in regular order the gross bodies, both collective and segre- gate.

Of the first five, the heart, anus, navel, throat and the whole body are respectively the seats. Then He created the Karmend- riyas organs of action out of the fourth part of Rajoguna. Talking , walking, lifting, excreting and enjoying are their functions. Likewise out of the three collective parts of the Sattva essence, He created the internal organ called Antahkarana.

Ear, skin, eyes, tongue and nose are the modifications. Sound, touch, form, taste and odour are their functions. The Self, who stands aloof as a mere witness of this pheno- mena, has got nothing to do with them, and yet, alas! Therefore, the Shruti says that the Self is like one who is being driven in a chariot, which is the body.

The reason is the charioteer, the mind the reins and the semes the horses. With the union of these he reaches the goal, that is, enjoys the sense-objects Atmdnam rathiitam Sc. When one, however, separates himself from the two bodies gross and subtle i. One who does not do this commits suicide Atmahanojanah — Ish. The Purusba is God Himself. In all this the man has no power of choice ; all is fixed by the choices he has made id the past, and he must discharge to the uttermost far- thing the liabilities he has contracted.

Archbishop Butler admits in his 4 Analogy ' that the fact that we are conscious of a will is reconcilable with the Doctrine of Necessity and says that if the fatalist denounces any punishment as unjust, because it is inflicted for doing that which the sufferer could not help doing, the necessity which is sup- posed to destroy the injustice oF murder, for instance, would also destroy the injustice of punishing it.

Nay, we actually entertain desire every moment for some- thing or other, but how often do we find by experience that the acquisition, after great efforts, of what we have been longing for has done us, in the long run, more harm than good I The Scriptures as well as Prophets and Saints ofa. We may ' be unable to improve our material good in the world but we can,. It was put pointedly by the Christian Initiate, St. Buddhists accepted the belief, and the Jews of the time of Jesus Christ uuiverBally held the doctrine under the name of Gilgal.

John, IX. If a man could be born blind for Bin committed by himself, that sin must have been committed in a previous life.. This is what every body ought to do. It must be borne in mind, how- ever, that disinterested work alone, which is most pleasing 51 Disinterested work t0.

This is the only means of loosening the grip of destiny. That of which all things are made, the Lord by Whom all things exist, He Who is incon- ceivable, without beginning, the beginning of the Universe, reposes, sleeping upon Shesha the serpent of the Infinity in the midst of the deep. They are all resolved into their primal elements when their Brah- ma's life period comes to a close. They have all been produced from one and the same Mulaprakriti and are dis- tinct from one another but all of them are pervaded and controlled by one Ishvara Kvedrigvidhd viganitdnda- paranucharyd vdtddhvaromavivarasyci cha te mahattvam- Shri Bhdgavata.

Now as the Yajurveda and Rigveda agree in the Advaita Monism at the beginning and' end of the Universe respectively, so does the Sfimaveda which is the left-wing Uttarah pakshah establish the same truth even during the period of its exist- This knowledge is necessary because even after one has realized the Self, it is impossible for him to avoid seeing the unreal world which must continue to exist till the period of its dissolution. Shvetaketu answered in the negative and expressed his anxiety to know what that in- struction was.

The question is contradictory. Our position is that the Absolute has become this relative only appar- ently, that the unconditioned has become the conditioned only in Mayfi. By the very admission of the uncondi- tioned, we admit that the Absolute cannot be acted upon by anything else. In the unconditioned there cannot be time, space, -or causation. But you take it out of the conditioned, and want to ask it in the unconditioned.

Only when the un- conditioned becomes conditioned, and space, time, and 54 causation come in, can the question be asked. We cam only say ignorance makes the illusion. The question is impossible. Nothing can have worked in the Absolute- There was no cause. Not that we do not know, or that we are ignorant ; but it is above knowledge, and cannot be- brought down to the plane of knowledge. We find in the Muktikopanishad that ' Persons desirous of emancipation and having deve- loped the four means of salvation should, with presents in their hands, approach a Guru full of faith, of good family, proficient in Vedas, Scripture-loving, of good qua- lities, straightforward, intent upon the welfare of all beings, and an ocean of compassion.

Lastly, The A t h ar v ana Atharvana Veda, which is compared to the tail Puchchha of a bird is not a separate Veda but a mere selection of the important Mantras from the three Vedas. It serves as a shining weapon to the Perfect Yogi when he has to quote authorities for the purpose of solving the doubts of his disciples, as the tail of a bird adds to its beauty- although it is not intended for any special use. With regard to the Nature and Love as well as the eternal companionship of the Qualities or Saguna Brahma Personal God , the Vedas order such of the individual souls as are endowed 55 Worship o!

By means of the Vedas, men like Sanaka, in the early times, got themselves saved through the Grace of the Guru Preceptor. Then came The Shntras and forward the Shfistras to help mankind their origin. The cere- monial parts of the Vedas are likewise modified and rend- ered easier for practice in the form of Smritis forms of spiritual duties and sacrifices.

Thus it is to be remembered that each of the Six Schools aimed at the real truth and drew from the common fund , of the Vedas whatever was necessary for or. In the same way, although it is some- times erroneously believed that some of these systems are atheistic, the late Prof. All great religious teachers there- fore whether in earlier or later times,- nay even all those at the present day whose religion rests upon faith, are alike nncon- sciouly followers of Kant. Pew persons ever challenge this definition.

They represent what we call the Self. Now, if a future life is unavoidable, a rational being is 'bound to make it as happy as possible. The Purva Mimftnsa or First Investigation of Jaimini, therefore, lays hind thorn all and to point out how they can bo studied to- gether or rather in succession and how all of them are meant to lead honest Btudents into the way of Truth. Max Muller. The purification thus secured by the sacrifice- of disinterested actions qualifies one for a knowledge of the- Self which is the summum bontim of the Sankhyas.

The San- khya Philosophy ofKapila has for its fundamental concep- ts , ,. Its ultimate aim is attained as soon as the Purusha re- cognises his entire distinctness from the Prakriti by count- ing forth or separating the 24 Tattvas 1 or elements of which the latter is composed.

This justifies the name- Sflnkhya given to the philosophy. So if the- neophyte, thirsting after Self-improvement mixes indiscrimi- nately with all sorts of worldly men, he not only loses his ideals- Lnt Mb former faith, love, and enthusiasm also die away imperceptibly. When, however, you convert the milk into butter, it no longer mixes with water, bnt floats over it. The human mind, though fully enlightened as to its true nature, would soon be carried away again by the torrent of life ; the impressions of the senses and all the cares and troubles of every day life would return, if there were no means of making the mind as firm as a rock.

Now this steadying of the mind, this Yoga, is what PAtanjali is chiefly concerned with. As regards its fundamental doctrines, we are told by the author in one-half verse what has been taught in thousands of volumes viz. There is only one Universal Self who is existence, consciousness and bliss Sat-chit-dnanda.

Noth- ing exists here except that Self Neha ndndasti kinchatia. He who knows Brahma to be such is himself Brahma larly, when, the soul once attains Godhead, it may live in any company without ever being affected by its evil influences. And yet alas! Your present enquiry has been prompted by that -desire alone. And now 1 Of. I am going to explain it. But its full explanation will be given by you in your Shrimad Bhftgavatam which will be of the nature Tho PurAnas and their origin. The importance of Love or Charity, as it is called' St.

And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burnt, and The Avatars to be interpreted both historically and spiritually. Nay, they were human beings of flesh and blood just as you are. He taught it after- wards to Parikshiti grand-son of Arjuna who having heard it for only seven days obtained salvation. Many a soul, for several succeeding generations followed the example of the noble prince and reaped the same fruit.

ThiB Love solves the problem of life. This is the basis of all Ethics and the key-note of the Golden Rule "Do unto others as you would that they should do to you ; do not to others as you would not that they should do to you. But as the reason or the determining faculty of the Rfijasika and TAmasika masses was too gross to under- stand clearly the drift of even the Purfmas, simple as they were, and consequently from time to time there was great confusion of thought everywhere, the Personal God was necessitated to come down Himself as a Saviour in the form of Shri Rilma, Shri Krishna and others and live with us and preach personally His secret ways for the redemp- tion of the world and also to send at due intervals His Lovers Bhaktas from His Supreme Abode, in the form of Prophets and Saints to guide us by Th fcheirorigin?

The mere company of saints, moreover, creates imperceptibly, without any efforts, tendencies which, in due course, result in dis pas- sion, knowledge, love and salvation. James, 64 The sum and sub stance of all sao red teachings. Not even the best of us can realize Him.

This is what Am our ism teaches us. Saguna Brahma after death Jndtum 2 drashtuncha tattvena p'ravesht- uncha. To these, who are ceaselessly devoted and who worship Ale for love alone, 1 give that union of reason with the Self by which they attain to Ale. And out of pure compassion for them, remaining In their hearts, 1 destroy their darkness as welt as the Illusion born of ignorance with the lamp of knowledge and the resplendent light of the Sun of Wisdom.

And yet the evil doers, the foolish ones, the worst of men, bereft of knowledge by illusion. What is- this? Rftma is the chief of our family. Rfima is the great end. He is the Lord of Lords, the liberator of the Gods. We are his servants; by serving Him knowledge dawns..

He destroys the evil ones- He is the support of the virtuous. This truth is for ever. Obstacles disappear. When Rfima favours, realization dawns. Thus the whole world would be saved if every one were to worship God. Their minds were all dark and their deeds were all black.

Their natural inclination was to do mischief to people for the sake of mischief itself. These were called; Demons. Sugar is indeed sweet, but it gives a bitter taste to those who suffer from bile. The Atheists have obviously no faith in the ,, Scriptures or the Words of God. They say, the universe is a truthless, baseless. Holding this view, these ruined souls of little wit, of ferocious deeds come forth as enemies of the world for its destruction.

Surren- dered to insatiable desires, possessed with hypocrisy, pride and passion, they grasp false notions through delusion and engage in unholy work. Indulging in un- measured thoughts ending with death, aspiring but to sate desire, being resolved that this is all, bound by a hundred ties of hope, given up to anger and desire, they wish to gain by unjust means hoards of wealth for enjoying objects of desire. Such men are necessarily destined to go to hell Patanti nccrake' shuchau.

Shall I take other Gods besides Him? So also the Bible says in Exodus XX. A Zoronstrinn has no special injunction ns to where I10 should recite his prayers. Mo mny, if he likes, do so on the land or in the sea, in a house or in an open space, in his hall or in his bed-room, for, ho is taught that Ahura- Mazda is omnipresent.

However, the usual custom is to go to a firo sanctuary, if available at hand, and to pray to Ahura- Mazda, facing the holy fire burning there, or to go and stand beforo the roaring waves of the sea or to pray boforo the firo in the hearth, or to stand in a solitary place and pray to Ahura-Mnzda with tho face turned towards the Sun or the Moon.

On account of this, tho Anti-Zoroaslrinns falsely call the followers of tho Zoronstvian faith fire-worshippers, snn- worsliippcrs and so on. Tho Parsie, ns already explained before, do not consider tho fire, tho sun, tho moon and tho sea as different gods. On tho contrary, they consider them as mere creations of Almrn-Mazda. All these grand objects in nature mako a Pni'si admiro nnd praise Abura-Mnzda, Who has ci'oatcd them all.

Tho prosonce of theso mighty creations awakens in his heart the emotion of veneration dno to tho Almighty. Referring « What- ever form of Deity a devotee wishes to worship with faith to that self-same form, I render his faith steady. He endowed with that faith seeks the worship of such a one, from whom he obtains the beneficial things he desires, although it is I who give. But finite is the fruit which belongs to those who are small-minded. Even when the Pluralist goes to heaven in this way, he stays there for a limited period only and then returns to this world as he was Kshine punye martyaloltam vishanti — The result of q q 2 i.

When the Shrutis, however, then worship. His inherent tendencies again lead him to do the same actions and secure the same goal. These actions too are not few and simple but numerous and stiff Kriyd vishesha bahuldm and a slight error in performing them makes the whole trouble null and void. They serve to bring to the worshipper some kind of celestial enjoyment but can neither give rise to Bhakti or intense Quotation devotion to God nor lead to Mukti or free- tfrom Swiimi VL dom from all bondages.

The last two defects are obvious because the worshippers are ignorant pleasure-seekers. But their love is not uninterrup- ted also, because through misfortune if any of their wishes are not fulfilled, there is every danger of a sudden break or rupture. In the- remaining portion of this Second Chapter we shall deal' with his efforts to realize God and the Third and Fourth Chapters will be devoted to the description of the aspi- rants toiling for perfection and the wise lovers respectively.

Thus, it becomes the uninterrupted love of the knowledge- seeker Jijndsu. What is True Faith then? It is a state of mind, which believes God to be the material as well as efficient cause of the universe Ahain sarvasya prabhavo Mattah sarvam pravar- - tate — B. XV III. It also disciplines it. This is what protects it from bigotry, credulity and fanaticism. Essence of True Faith is Sacrifice. Here a question arises that if man is not the doer of actions how do actions take place at all?

The reply is, they take place naturally according to the inherent tendencies of previous lives Svablidvastu pravartate — B. When the Shruti says that God causes them alone to do pious deeds whom He wishes to take to heaven and makes such persons only to commit sin as He intends to condemn to hell, it means He is in the position of the sun who guides the foot-steps of both those who- follow the right path as well as of those who follow the wrong one.

Shri Krishna therefore, tells in B. He must have the moral courage to resist the temptation of the alluring fruits- attached to optional work in the Vedas and the ardent zeal to perform disinterestedly all the necessary duties which fall to his lot Dhrityutsdhasamanvitah. Lastly,, 78 Duties are: 1 Necessary and 2 Optional. A similar advice is given in Mrs.

Besant's 1 Discrimination and Sacrifice. A right actor does not go rushing about seeking for activities; he takes the acti- vity that comes naturally in his way, and strives to per- form it perfectly, remembering in every function that he iis the Lord in action, and is not truly the doer of action.

They are of two kinds, viz. The optional are to be entirely avoided by those who wish to realize the Self just as forbidden actions Nishiddha karma are to be avoided by all. The necessary duties are those which must be observed by every one. They may be divided into three classes, viz. Newman 1 calls them, he says that the virtue of self-denial is enforced by Christianity upon us.

These are to be performed with perfect faith in God Yogasthah kuru karmdni — B. As for the worship of the household Deities, family Gods and others, Thakur Haranath asks 3 us 1 Duties are often divided into religious, relative, and personal; the characteristic excellence in each of those departments of virtue being respectively Faith, Benevolence and Just'ce, and Temperance. The Sandhjfi Vandana performed by Dhy3. It gives no trouble to the body or the speech. Pray to each to inspire you with devotional emotion for Sbri Krishna.

It is not at all necessary that a married girl should regard her parents as enemies Retain your present practice and foira of worship entire, but your heart must long for the Supreme Loid. The principle underlying our natural or personal duties is that we should take care of our body or person as a sailor would of his ship, because it helps us in Natural or crossing this ocean of grief.

The virtue Personal Duties. This Benevolence The Buie. The virtue of W akefulness. The most celebrated Marfi- emperance. It is the nature of action, however,. Disinterested actions would, therefore, take you to- the abode of the deceased ancestors ICannanif pitrilokah— Shruti as they are themselves unable to prevent the cycle of births and deaths. But as even the most deadly poisons put into the hands of a skilled physician, acnfice secu- are a y e t0 save so the very actions, res immor a 1 y.

If this is not moral instruction, and of the broadest clearest, best, we may as well give up trying what it. Thus, even the nine modes of worship viz. Vishnu Ddsa , his love is not the love of - Bhakfc. But as if to prove to the world the majesty, the omnipo- tence of Faith, He gave it to His devotee the great Hanu-' mfina to cross the ocean by the unaided power of Faith.

Technically, the word has the meaning of the effects of actions. Bat the elimination of wrong motive's is not enough. Negative precept is broomstick- morality at best — fit but to clear the way for something posi- tive. That something positive is Sacrifice. It work is a part of nature's foundation and goes on always.

Our goal in life is free- dom, through unselfishness. And according to Karma Yoga that goal is to be reached by means of work. The Karma Yogin asks us therefore not to have any motives to work, other than the inborn love of freedom and tells us more-- over to be beyond the common wordly motives. For, he who does good work in order to get to heaven even binds himself down; and work done with any the least selfish motive, instead of making us free, forges one more chain for our feet — so says the Karma Yogin.

Thus, the only way for us is to give up all the fruits of work and to be unattached to them. Know that this world is not we, nor are we this world; that we are really not the body and that we really do not work. For, we are the Self, eternally at rest and at peace ". J A ,, village path, when Thy golden chariot m ». My hopes rose high and methought my evil days were at an end, and I stood waiting for alms to be given unasked and for wealth scattered on all sides in the dust. The chariot stopped where I stood.

Thy glance fell on me and Thou earnest down with a smile. I was confused and stood undecided, and 87 then from ray wallet I slowly took out the least little grain of corn and gave it to Thee. It appears obvious that good actions have a value, like any currency that we have in precious metals.

A large number of good deeds, then, is equivalent to wealth on earth and a means of wielding authority, on high planes. Obedience to the injunctions of Religion Devotion must be included in the category of meritorious deeds. All the authority available through them, has to be sacrificed for the sake of obtain- ing true righteousness. Work then never for the fruit of actions, but because it is a loving duty of yours to do so.

Renounce all rewards of conduct and let the Lord use them, as current coin, in the way that He deems most acceptable to Himself. Thus alone by voluntary gift, can man deprive himself of his claim on Nature for a full recompense, which otherwise is placed at his disposal in the fullness of time. W e have seen that sublime knowledge, pure acts, and speech and heart-felt prayers offered as ordained, entitle one to certain rewards.

This para refers to the dedication of all such merit-earning acts, speech and prayers to Ahura. Besant, 'is a cent- ceutra! Sacrifice arises. When such a sacrifice begets disinterested Love of God Bhakti , the knowledge-seeker Jijndsu indulges in. Quotations from the works of Indian Saints. Sing unto Him; sing psalms unto Him; talk ye of all His wondrous works. The prohibition in Exodus XX. The importance of the repetition ' Japa 1 of the name of God may be gathered from the fact 1 Japa is repeating the Holy Name; through this the devotees rise to the Infinite.

Quotations from the Koran and the Bible. The mental is associated with contemplation by the mind. Such is the opinion of all the other saints 1 because it has the authority of the Vedas. By keeping the company of saints and by faithfully studying the Shdstras, one may resolve not to do any wrong act but, in spite of this, the inherent tendenecies of his past lives are apt to lead him to commit sins against his will Buddhih karmdnusdrini.

The repetition of the names of God will, however, wash them off and render his mind perfectly pure Na kartin pdtaka nishchaya ltd ghade, mana tathdpihi pdpa paihin pade j jari dhari Harindmaka vitta hen, ashttbhaht shtibha 1. The reply, Knshna-kirfcana however, j s this.

When a man is under as a lemedy for an a ffli c tion, he takes spirituous liquors to drown his sorrows and sufferings. It gives rise to ecstacy in the heart and overcomes sorrows and sufferings, even suffereings from heat. The remembrance gives him joy and strength and neutralises the poignancy of his sufferings.

Standing midway between the external world and God, it represents both. They have more power to-day than ever before, not only because its potent words and tones, in their combinations, were founded on the Law -of Vibration which touches a deep vibratory current in Name stands midway between external world and God. We must regard His name as an object of greater endearment to us than He Himself. Tak- 1 Of. Well let it go! Let it go wherever it likes. You need not bother yourself running after it!

You stay where you are and go on with the name. The mind will run away this way and that; but at last quite knocked up, it will return to you of its own accord. Yet in each one of these Thy names is to be found Thy omnipotence and Thou reachest the worshipper through any one of them! Neither is there any special 1 time mentioned to take Thy name so long as the soul has intense love for Thee. Thou art so easy of approach! It is my misfortune that I cannot love Thee, O Lord!

Music has such tremendous 'power over the human mind; it brings it to concentration in a moment. Now, objec- tionable as this demand for blind faith may be, we see on analysing it, that behind it there is a great truth. What it really means is what we are now considering.

The mind is not to be ruffled by vain argu- ments, because arguments will never bring us to know God. Then only we shall believe and not before. Shri Riitnakrish- verily there is nothing higher than Faith. Gospel of Shri Rdmakrishna. Max offence as a requisite for philosophy and Muller. Then came the disciples to Jesus apait and said, Why could not we caste him out?

And Jesus said unto them Because of your unbelief;. Everybody shall choose Thee believe in Thee as the source of light. Thee, Mazda, most beneficent spirit etc. Nay, even in worldly matters if there be no faith between masters and servants, parents and.

Social facts worl y mat ere. XVHL 2. Shri Bhftgavata, XI. Lost in my devotion, My votary has his heart melted, and his speech choked with emotion ; he sometimes weeps and laughs excessively. Such a man of devotion sancti- fies the world.

Hundreds, a purified mind, yea thousands of times have I possessed, and finally have found disappointment even in possession. These joys are illusions, as bubbles on the stream, fairy-coloured, rain-bow-hued, but bursting at a touch. All desires that detract me, day and night, are false and empty to the core. As the night keeps hidden in its gloom the petition for light, even thus in the depth of my unconsciousness rings the cry — I want Thee, only Thee.

Quotations from Shri Bbaga- vata and Svapne- shvara. The principal cause of knowledge is the purified reason of the -disciple. In the same way, to one whose mind is not purified, what can instruction do? If a tree does not bear flower or fruit, what can the spring do? If a sterile woman does not get children, what can the hus- band do? If the life passes away, what work can the body do? Tukft says without water there can be no crops. To make Himself, however, more clear about the nature of the knowledge Buddhiyogam lit.

The swan Hansa is said to be gifted with 1 Vide Chap. The Preceptor, however, by the help of the Anvaya Know- ledge makes the disciple realize 1 that the Imperishable Aksharam Brahma is the reality Paramatn in the Perishable , Ksharam world from which it is separated by the Vyatireka Knowledge.

So far, Arjuna is given what is called prac- tical knowledge of the Impersonal Brahma or Nirguna Jnflna. And yet, the forms of things as well as the reason which recognises them still remain to be accounted for. There are innumerable waves in the ocean, but the human vision can reach upto a certain limit only, that is the horizon, while the infinite ocean, which still remains beyond it, is to be judged by inference from the experience that one actually possesses.

Him and now to say that He is in none. The five ways in which it is imparted to Arjuna. Fori of the two parts of each of these several pairs, the second ones such as the ocean, the rays of the sun etc. These statements,. In what light, therefore, is it to be seen? The answer, which is called! Thus, knowledge and ignorance, which liberate and fetter the individual souls respectively, are to be realized as the body 1 of the Personal God created by Him by means of His Mftyfi illusion.

If, after securing Necessity o f practice for securing Per- fection. The' different means, therefore, employed by the Jnfini Arthdrthi seeking perfection of knowledge Siddht and enjoyment of living- freedom f Jivanmukti , will be discussed in the next Chapter called Perfect Resignation Samprapatti. All the three worlds thrilled with Description of j 0 y w hen I realized myself to be all.

The mourning of births and deaths is over, as I am now far far away from all limitations of ignorance. I will, there- fore, keep faith in Him and lie at His feet. Tukfl, says the impression or form of the Personal God, which is traceable everywhere in the world, have I assumed on my own Impersonal Self. Abandoning all duties, seek shelter in Ale alone; I will release you from all sins, do not grieve. Tell not this to one who lacks deliberation and never to one who has no love.

No one Is there amongst men who does dearer service to Ale than he, and there shall never be another on earth dearer to Ale than he. And in the highest state of beatitude this Ishvara passes out- like all other dualities and illusions, and the consciousness of the one-without-a-second, ot the undifferentiated Unity alone remains.

But not otherwise, my child. Sarva guhyatamam. The reasons he gives for his declaring Vakshydmi this most mysterious Truth are that i Arjuna being His friend and lover is very dear to Him Ishto'si Me , z he is steadfast Dridhamati and would not change the resolution which he has once made of fighting and 3 the last word is for his good Te hitam i.

The student will be able to do this with ease only if he secures the quality of Perfect Resignation or Absolute Self-Surrender Matparah —B. Nature teaches and inclines us to take up with our lot; the consideration that the course of things is unalterable hath a tenedency to quiet the mind under it, to beget a submission of temper to it; but when "we can add that this unalterable course is appointed and continued by Infinite Wisdom and Goodness how absolute should be our submission how entire our trust and depen- dence?

Our resignation to the will of God may be said to be perfect, when our will is lost and resolved up into His; when we rest in His will as our end, as being itself most just and right and good. The mind, for instance, sees the trunk, tail, tusk and other parts of the body of an elephant, but it is the reason that determines the animal seen to be an elephant. Shri Krishna, therefore, asks Arjuna to keep bis mind fixed on Him only Mayycva 1 mana ddhatsvci that is to meditate on the whole animate and inanimate world as the form of the Personal God.

But this is not possible until he is able to realize the spirit or the Self in it. To the lovers of the Personal God, however, it is an easy task through His Grace. The reason is that the former, whose minds are bent wholly on the unqualified Impersonal Brahma Avyakldsakta cheta-. AnanynohetAh Fatntnm — B. His nature of the Kalpavriksha wishing- tree in subduing the desires which divert the mind from the study of Brahma.

Now, a question arises vie. Their position resembles that of the fish taken out of water and put on hot ground. Under such circumstances how could they avoid feeling pain? Arjuna, how- ever, could not understand how this union of two hetero- geneous elements was possible, as he thought a Yogi to be a worshipper of the Impersonal God Nirgtitia Brahma and a Bhakta to be a worshipper of the Personal God, such as Rftma or Krishna, having some definite form, and that the two different modes of worship must naturally clash with each other.

Thus the Personal God becomes speedily his deliverer from the ocean of births and deaths Teshdmaham samuddh art A tnri tyu sansdra sAgardtj bhavdmi na chirdt — B. The aspirant who after Self-realization abandons. His practice of Yoga consists of eight steps known as Ashtfmgas.

When he is, however, able to enjoy in his concentration the endless Bliss Sukliamtltyanlikam of the Self, he is said to be attuned Yukta or enthroned in Y'oga Yogdiudha. It has been truly said that the man who relies upon stimu- lants for Btrength is lost, for ho is drawing upon a reserve fnnd, which is not completely replaced, and physiological bankruptcy must inevitably ensue.

Tais is what tho stimu- lants such as, tea, coffee, alcohol, tobacco, opium and cjcaino do for those who trust in thorn; they none of thou introduce albumen, available for conversion into force and urea, they merely aid tho calling out of reserves. These stimulants arc necessary, however, to flesh-eaters, and the reason is Ample, for on nil flesh diets they are con- stantly taking uric aotd and tho Xanthins, nnd these are tirsb stimulants nnd afterwards depressants.

VL Under these cir- He secures cum stances how can he be said to enioy sai ration but not When the aspirant Attempts to realize the Imper- sonal Brahma in the Universe he is said to be an Anvaya It follows that the only way to get clear of stimulants is to give them up; If any are retained you must of necessity ba- led to take more and gradually to add others which are more' powerful. Hence the economy of land, the economy of expense, and consequently both national and private wealth and prosperity would bB enormously in- creased by a return to the dietic habits indicated as natural to man by his physical structure and by bis moral instincts.

It has now been shown — briefly indeed, bnt I trnst sufficiently — what support for the system, advooated in these pages iB derived from the facts of comparative anatomy, physiology 1. But about Vyatireka Yogi it says only that he fears no one Na bibhcii kuhtscluma which means he obtains salvation. Just as we find water in the waves and the waves in the water, so does the Yogi whose reason has become steady realizes the Self in everything and everything in the Self.

It may be said, How does ho however, that it is not possible to see spirit U1 in matter which is entirely different from it in appearance. But the difficulty is solved in this way that although pieces of ice are hard and they do not resemble water at all, which is fluid, yet our actual experience is that they arc nothing but water. Similarly, sugar and articles made of sugar appear to the sight as distinct things but to the taste they are one and the same. Thus, the senses of the Anvaya Yogi perceive the material form of things and their reason realizes the spirit pervad- ing them.

In Bhagavad-Gitfi VI. He depends upon his own efforts for suc- cess in his Yoga, and he neither expects' nor gets any assistance from the Personal God. If you show a piece of cloth to any one and ask him what it is he will say that it is cloth. He may happen to be a child, who has no idea whatever of the thread of which it is formed, or a grown up man, who knows the thread and yet who is not careful to observe it in the piece of cloth.

The latter resembles a Yogi who fias realized the Self but who is unable to see it in the Universe. If any description of a Vyati- reka Yogi includes the enjoyment of living-freedom, it must be distinctly understood that he has mastered the Anvaya Yoga also. He is, there- fore, one who after Self-Realization prac- tises the Anvaya Yoga and worships the Saguna Brahma, who is of the nature of the Kalpavriksha wishing-tree.

Superiority of Anvaya Yoga proved. He is, therefore, advised not to despair but to give the Personal God lower service by practising over and over again the study Effeob of pre- of the Impersonal Brahma he has already vious tendencies.

He is, how- ever, asked to do this with a steadfast will to worship the spirit pervading matter, in order to reach the Personal God' alone Mdm ichchhdptum , lest he might fall in the class of the Nirgunopasakas or the worshippers of the Imper- sonal Brahma. He has, therefore, to practise the Nirguna Yoga only until he has thoroughly picked up the Imper- sonal nature of God and then he should witho'ut loss of time resume the worship of the Personal God by reali- zing the Self in all the forms perceived by the senses- This is the Sakhya Rasa or the emotion of SakhyaRasaof friendshipof the Vaishnavas.

It is not,how- the Vaishnavas. O Yftdava! O Com- rade! I crave pardon of Thee who art indefinable. Thou art the Father of the world, moving and unmoving; Thou art most worshipful and the great- est Guru; there is none like Thee; whence can there be- one greater, O Thou whose manifestation is unparalleled in all the three worlds.

Therefore, I bow with body bent and' ask grace of Thee, the praiseworthy Lord. Be pleased to put up with Me as a father with the son, a friend with the friend or a husband with the beloved. Having seen things unseen before, I am delighted and yet my mind is sorely troubled with fear; show me 0 God I that same form.

Have mercy, O Lord of Gods! This is the Bhagavata Dharma of the nine-fold duty Navavidhd Bhakti of hearing Shrava - nam , singing God's names and praises Kirtanam , etc. The aspi- rant has to bestow his mind on Him by seeing' God or the Self in the Universe as one sees gold in the ornaments. If he can— not do this he must bestow his love on Him by at least firmly believing, until he is able to realize, the Self to be God.

Vide Page Quota b i o n s from the Bbnga- vad-Gifca, the Ma- habhiirata and Shri Bhiigavata as to how a Jnsini should bestow his homage. If the aspirant, there- fore, does the four things mentioned in the verse B. Here, the. Self is said to be minute Sukshnta because it cannot be perceived by the senses. Otherwise, it is the greatest of all M ah atogariyd n-Sh ruti.

But in order to have such a strong faith Tatah it is necessary that he must abandon not only all actions Sarvakarma tydgam , but also the desire of material happiness Phalaiydgam without the satisfaction of which, the actions as well as their fruits prove useless. For ins- tance, suppose a person secures sugar with great efforts, but, before having an opportunity of using it, he gets an attack of bile.

This deprives him of the happiness which be expected to derive from it, because it gives him a bitter taste. He, naturally, considers both his efforts and their fruit, the sugar, to have gone in vain. The real fruit is, therefore, not the object gained but the desire of the worldly pleasure for which the object is required. This, in fact, enabled him to acquire Vyatireka and Anvaya knowledges.

If he is not able to do it, he is asked to practise the study of the Impersonal Brahma Abhydsa Yoga and the nine modes of worship Mcctkarma paramo bhava. But, as he does not like these means, he is sug- gested a fresh one, viz. The mind of the aspirant must also be well-control- led Y atdtmavdn. For, even merit like sin fetters by producing births and deaths, although the former yields fruit in the shape of worldly pleisures and the latter in that of pain.

Both are, after all, chains, one of which that shines is made of gold and the other which is dim, of iron. Unless they are shattered, it is impossible to obtain freedom. Lovers extolling Love for Me, shall surely come to Me. No one is there amongst men who does dearer service to Me than he, and there -. Preaching shall never be another on earth dearer Love of God. But, to secure this result, two conditions Its two tBsen- are necessary, viz.

Here, if one were to. Angels or Gods or whatever you may call them have all to become men, if they want to become per- fect. This is the great centre, the wonderful poise, and the wonderful opportunity this human life. Whatever is sown in it becomes Kriyamana in this life, Sanchita, immediately after death, and, when ripe for enjoyment or suffering, appears in the form of Prarabdha in another life.

XVIIB The driver of it bawled aloud and required the disciple to give way to the brute. This operation left the disciple with but a few bones safe, dazed and in an agony of bitterness. He sent for his guide and put it to him how if Ahura Mazda, were in the elephant, from Him the supremely goodT" injury could have proceeded.

It was practised and preached by Jina, the founder of Jainism. He abandons undertakings which are expected to give pleasure because he renounces the desire of pleasure [Sarvdravtbha parity dgi. His mind is pure Shuchi that is free from the desire of sense-objects.

He never identifies himself with the body nor has he any attachment to his wife and children, and therefore' he is always unconcerned Uddsitta while his Prarabdha is working. But this indifference dees not cause any affliction Gatavyathd to him, for, if he had a liking for any material object, then only his mind would be troubled with the anxiety to secure it or with the pain of losing it. He reaches perfec- tion by the Grace of the Personal God without any difficulty.

By Vyatireka Knowledge, the Yogi realizes Him to be the Self who is naturally dearer to everybody than anything else. This shows the extreme love of the Yogi to the Lord, for, without it, his mind would never remain steady in him even for a moment.

There- fore, as one who loves gold views the same in all orna- ments so does the votary of God discern Him in the various forms, such as those of wife, children, etc. Under these circumstances, how can they affect him in any way? How am I now to Sbri BUg. Indeed there is noth- ing as holy as knowledge in this world I Nahi jiutiiciia sadrisliam pavitramiha vidyafc — B.

We are asked, therefore, m the Uttara Gita II. DhydnamJ, for, the differences of names and forms would then disappear alto- gether, just as the fear of a serpent vanishes' fop-ever, as soon as one sees the rope lying in the dark by the help of a -lamp. But, such is not the fact. What wonder is there, then, if the aspirant, who does not meditate- on the knowledge he has acquired, fails to secure peace of mind?

Here Arjuna takes for granted the e'lect of the previ- ous tendencies and yet thinks that one who has realized the Self cannot but obtain Freedom, forgetting the fact that there can be no Freedom without the destruction of desires. Shri Krishna, therefore, suggests to him that his supposition is wrong by saying that renunciation of action as well as that of desire of worldly Freedom im- pleasures transcends meditation Dhydndt possible without kannaphalatyrigah.

When a Jnflai rea- tho destruction c b es p er f tCl ; 0n by meditation he is not of aosires. The aspirant, who takes refuge in the Divine Power Madyogamdshritah , is also permitted to abandon such actions Taiali kiiru. All- others. II, it is forced upon the aspirant who takes refuge in the Divine Power Hudyoqamdshrit ih , but in the case of the Jnani who reaches perfection, it is the natural result of meditation Dhydna. This is the peace of mind Shdnti which is the result of renunciation of desires.

There can be no comparison between this natural peace and the peace of the knowledge-seeker Jijndsu or the imperfect Jnani Arthdrthi which they have to assume. By that Love be knows Me everywhere how great and who I am in truth, and then knowing Me as I am, he enters Into Me after death for ever. The mind of the Lover Bhakta who has by the means suggested in the last Chapter become the Impersonal Brahma and who enjoys living-freedom Description of. While enjoying the pleasure which he gets unasked, for, he never seeks them, he is not sorry for having them Na shochati and does not quarrel with his Prarabdha, nor is he on that account anxious Na kdtt- kshati to retire from the world and live m solitude.

Now that he has become, perfect he does not fight shy of Pravritti and does not thirst for Nivritti as he did: when he was practi- sing Yoga. For, he is himself every wheie the same Samah satvesliu Truth, viz. In Chapter II. When a man has a general dislike for all wordly deemed a fit candidate for knowledge Jijttdsu. When, in due course, he acquires knowledge and works for perfection Siddhi his mind sometimes, owing to previous tendencies Purvasanskdra , thinks of external objects.

He is then required to control it by- means of practice AbJiydsa and dispassion- Vairdgya. Such a man is called an Initiate Arthdrthi. He is said to be of steady Teason, when, even' - while suffering unbearable pain, his mind is not-at- all agitated thereby, ndr does it ever- occur" to. He is free from love of material things Vitardga because he loves intensely 'his own real Self. He is fearless -befcause he knows by expe- rience that , the body and the - external objects are all unreal.

IIJ j ; What will such a being speak? Can we expect him to indulge in the idle- prattle of the world for. Why will he open his mouth at all,, who feels no exultation if anything agreeable happens in life or who finds no reason to curse his fate on - the occurrence of any disagreeable: event?

The third ques- tion, viz. The answer which Arjuna re- ceives to. The Self about whom every body is in utter ignorance Nishd lit. He lives in the Self, he eats in the Self, he drinks in the Self, he wakes in the Self, he dreams in the Self, he sleeps in the Self, he talks in the Self, he laughs in the Self, he weeps in the Self, in short, he does everything in the Self of whom all the rest know nothing. On the other hand, the material world, with the minutest details of whichi every human being is perfectly familiar, he also sees— but.

Similarly, a cow alone runs after green tender grass but not the cowman whose: -dinner of bread and ddl pulse is in his hand-bag. The importance of this Cha- rity or Love is pointed out by St. Even St. Shri Kri. Ma Brahma, to the Personal God, who is, as it were, born of Him.. H Tuhdrdma. As regards Para Bhakti or. Therefore, as- we reach that higher state of Love, all differences between the things of the world will be entirely lost.

And this Love when given to God - is called Bhakti.

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