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More specifically, those who continued to live with their parents showed little or no change in their drug use. Jessor, Richardiii , has discussed the Structure of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Conducted 3 studies on the structure of behavior, using data collected by the 2nd author and S.
Jessor These earlier bivariate findings suggested that diverse problem behaviors, including problem drinking, illicit drug use, delinquent-type behavior, and precocious sexual intercourse, may comprise a single behavioral syndrome in samples of normal adolescents.
Peteriv , has stated that the Impact of adolescent drug use and social support on problems of young adults. Despite widespread concern regarding the effects of teenage drug use, there has been little effort to establish specifically what long-term consequences arise from such use and whether these adverse outcomes may be mitigated by a supportive social network. We obtained data from teenagers when they were in early and late adolescence and used it to evaluate resultant problems reported by this same group of youngsters when they were young adults.
Jestev, , has evaluated the potential impact of the Baby-Boom Generation on substance abuse Among Elderly persons. Little attention has been paid to substance use disorders in the elderly population. Currently available diagnostic criteria are likely to significantly underestimate the prevalence of substance abuse among elderly persons because they were developed and validated in younger samples.
Abuse and misuse of prescription and over-the- counter drugs may also increase due to the larger numbers of baby boomers. Mazibukovi ,Has evaluated Drugs and young people. This paper discusses drug use and abuse amongst children and young people globally. Young people are viewed in a developmental perspective as future social and human capital.
Their stage of development is viewed as equally important as all stages of human development. John Strangvii has discussed the Understanding reason for drug use amongst young people. This study uses a functional perspective to examine the reasons young people cite for using psychoactive substances.
The study sample comprised young poly-drug users recruited using snowball-sampling methods. Data on lifetime and recent frequency and intensity of use for alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD and cocaine are presented.
A majority of the participants had used at least one of these six drugs to fulfill 11 of 18 measured substance use functions. The Young people who come to the attention of health and welfare professionals often use drugs as a means of coping with situational and emotional distress. While this drug use may also exacerbate problems, practical assistance in areas such as accommodation, family, recreation, financial, vocation and educational support will most often need to precede or coincide with any drug use management.
Linking drug- related effects and interventions to goals identified by the client will enhance the possibility of change. The effects of drug dependence on social systems has helped shape the generally held view that drug dependence is primarily a social problem, not a health problem. In turn, medical approaches to prevention and treatment are lacking. We examined evidence that drug including alcohol dependence is a chronic medical illness.
A literature review compared the diagnoses, heritability, etiology genetic and environmental factors , pathophysiology, and response to treatments adherence and relapse of drug dependence vs. Genetic heritability, personal choice, and environmental factors are comparably involved in the etiology and course of all of these disorders.
Drug dependence produces significant and lasting changes in brain chemistry and function. Effective medications are available for treating nicotine, alcohol, and opiate dependence but not stimulant or marijuana dependence. Medication adherence and relapse rates are similar across these illnesses. Drug dependence generally has been treated as if it were an acute illness.
Review results suggest that long-term care strategies of medication management and continued monitoring produce lasting benefits. Drug dependence should be insured, treated, and evaluated like other chronic illnesses. A Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug- taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences. Addictive substances induce pleasant states euphoria in the initiation phase or relieve distress.
Continued use induces adaptive changes in the central nervous system that lead to tolerance, physical dependence, sensitization, craving, and relapse. A developmental sequence of involvement in drugs is one of the best replicated findings in the epidemiology of drug use. Regular sequences and stages of progression in which the use of alcohol and cigarettes precedes the use of marijuana cannabis , and, in turn, the use of marijuana precedes the use of other illicit drugs, has been observed in the United States as well as in other western societies Leamonxii ,has discussed that Neuropsychological effects of chornic methamphetamine use on neurotransmitters and cognition.
Methamphetamine use is on the rise, with an imminent upsurge of abuse and dependence reported across the United States. Currently, preliminary evidence suggests that methamphetamine dependence may cause long-term neural damage in humans, with concomitant deleterious effects on cognitive processes such as memory and attention. This selective review provides an outline and synthesis of studies that assess the neurotoxic mechanisms of methamphetamine, as well as those that evaluate the cognitive sequelae of methamphetamine abuse.
Nestlerxiii ,has stated that Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. Regulation of gene expression is one mechanism by which drugs of abuse can induce relatively long-lasting changes in the brain to cause a state of addiction. Both are activated in the nucleus accumbens, a major brain reward region, but mediate different aspects of the addicted state.
Hymanxiv, has discussed the addiction a disease of learning and memory. If neurobiology is ultimately to contribute to the development of successful treatments for drug addiction, researchers must discover the molecular mechanisms by which drug-seeking behaviors are consolidated into compulsive use, the mechanisms that underlie the long persistence of relapse risk, and the mechanisms by which drug- associated cues come to control behavior.
Evidence at the molecular, cellular, systems, behavioral, and computational levels of analysis is converging to suggest the view that addiction represents a pathological usurpation of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory that under normal circumstances serve to shape survival behaviors related to the pursuit of rewards and the cues that predict them.
The author summarizes the converging evidence in this area and highlights key questions that remain. Nestlerxv , has evolutated that Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction?. Drugs of abuse have very different acute mechanisms of action but converge on the brain's reward pathways by producing a series of common functional effects after both acute and chronic administration.
Researchers are making progress in understanding the molecular and cellular basis of these common effects. A major goal for future research is to determine whether such common underpinnings of addiction can be exploited for the development of more effective treatments for a wide range of addictive disorders. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern.
Coxxvii , has stated that Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: A review of its development, causes, and consequences. A wealth of research from the past two decades shows that addictive behaviors are characterized by attentional biases for substance-related stimuli. We review the relevant evidence and present an integration of existing theoretical models to explain the development, causes, and consequences of addiction-related attentional biases. We suggest that through classical conditioning, substance-related stimuli elicit the expectancy of substance availability, and this expectancy causes both attentional bias for substance-related stimuli and subjective craving.
Furthermore, attentional bias and craving have a mutual excitatory relationship such that increases in one lead to increases in the other, a process that is likely to result in substance self-administration. Cognitive avoidance strategies, impulsivity, and impaired inhibitory control appear to influence the strength of attentional biases and subjective craving. We make several predictions that require testing in future research, and we discuss implications for the treatment of addictive behaviors.
Drug abuse is one of the top problems confronting the nation today especially among the youth. Incidences of drug and alcohol abuse and related anti-social behavior have tremendously increased in recent years. This has become a matter of concern to the government, parents, teachers, Non-governmental organizations and all other relevant agencies.
Steinxix has been stated that the Problem solving styles among people who use alcohol and other drugs in South Africa. The present study examines the relationship between problem-solving styles, socio-demographic variables and risk of alcohol and other drug AOD -related problems among a South African population.
Meghanixx in has discussed the Drug abuse among youth: a harash reality. Pakistan is reported the highest usage of drugs in the world, with atleast 1. Drugs use in Pakistan level: Qureshixxi has evaluated that the Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Sindh. This study showed high prevalence of drug resistance among clinical isolates of M. Their is a need to establish centers at number of places with adequate facilities for susceptibility testing so that the resistant pattern could be ascertained and treatment regimens tailored accordingly.
Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine.
That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4. Bhattixxiii has studied the Drugs addiction as a social problem of Pakistan. Drug addiction includes the use of heroine, chars, bhang, Post and other medicinal drugs.
The use of drug is liked because there are anxiety-reducing agents. Their sedative hypnotic action plays a vital rule in the rule in the relief of symptoms of anxiety, suffering, restlessness and sleep lessens. Frequent use might paralyse the power and deprive the man of self-confidence, and blur the senses. With total or partial distortion of the function of consciousness the addict becomes inhabitant of the world of fantasy, illusion and dream.
The possession and use of drugs in Pakistan is illegal. It is believed that smoking of chars society which a serious problem. During a routine surveillance round, and extremely high prevalence of This sharp increase of HIV among this group warranted and urgent need to explore the factors leading toward this explosion of HIV infction among IDUs at this very location to direct policy makers in designing preventive activities, especially in the context of HIV prevention.
In the summary of his work he has the opined that Drugs addiction is harmful not only for the addicted but also has negative impact on the fabric of the society. The effects of such an addiction can cause dangerous changes in the mind, body and spirit of the drug addict.
During the course of this search man has extracted opium from poppy plant, cocaine from the leaves of coca bush, and cannabis from the hemp plant. Initially the use of these was only for the purpose of relieving the physical and mental capabilities, and for medicinal and surgical purpose. But the human spirit of innovation must have led to the use of these substances for mood-altering effects and offer an escape from the real and difficult world of existence to a more agreeable world of fantasy.
These things are perhaps a few of the oldest natural substances a fewer of the oldest natural substances used by human race. Iqraxxvi has discussed the drugs addiction and hepatitis b and c in Pakistan. The published literature on modes of transmission implicated unsterilized medical injections, barbering at roads, drug abuse, sexual behaviors, injection abuser groups and unsafe blood and blood products transfusion as major causes for having hepatitis in Pakistan.
Injection drug users are at an augmented risk of infection and risk is increasing exponentially. Bukahrixxvii has evaluated that the political and drugs. If politics makes strange bedfellows, politics and drugs produce even stranger ones. Giving the overall situation, he informed the apex court that out of 99 companies, 60 to 70 companies were allowed to import ephedrine.
Muhammadxxviii has studied the sociological study of drug abuse in Pakistan society with special reference to heroin addiction, its causes and consequences. He has stated that the Drug abuse, and particularly heroin addiction, has been spreading in Pakistan at a fast rate since the late Seventies. It has now become a serious social problem, which is probably going to stay. There is no pushbutton solution for its control and eradication Raizxxix has evaluated the Drug Abuse among Children on the rise in Pakistan.
Drug abuse is increasing at an alarming rate among youth in Pakistan. Specialists have accounted the rise in number of users due to easy availability of narcotics and psychological effects of violence. Children who have suffered violence in their life or who have undergone a traumatic experience turn to drugs to forget about the loss.
Research revealed that there were more cases of addiction among street children. Adilxxx has studies the substance, abuse; among prisoners and its consequences. Objectives: To study the prevalence of substance abuse among prisoners and its effects on other inmates.
Study design: A cross sectional study. Methodology: All the convicted and condemned prisoners were included in the study and those exclusively charged for drugs abuse crimes were excluded. Sample size was not predetermined. The study population was male and above the age of 18 years.
Results: About one hundred and eighty four prisoners were found using different drugs. Among them seventy six 76 The 91 The most commonly used drug was heroin Conclusions: Substance abuse among prisoners was increasing day by day leading to increased crimes, health issues, and significant economic constrains in every country especially among poor nations. Strong political will and public motivation was the need of time to deal with the issue.
Zaibxxxi has discussed the drugs abuse in Down news paper. The surfacing of drug-abuse statistics in Pakistan by Drug Use in Pakistan, , has shocked legal and medical fraternities. According to this report, more than 4.
In drug dependence, habit-forming drug is used for recreational purpose. But as time passes, the body demands repetitive use, until a time reaches when person is no longer able to function normally in the absence of such drugs. In Pakistan opium extracts hashish and heroin and Indian hemp are two substances are commonly used for such purposes. Najamxxxii has studies that the An exploratory research on the role of family in youth's drug addiction. Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the a etiological factors of drug addiction among the youth.
However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon. Twenty drug addicts age range 18—28 years were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered comprising questions related to the individual's habits, relationship with family and friends, and modes of communication within the family.
Gop, the daily Down newsxxxiii , has discussed the reveal alarming drugs abuse. Punjab has the highest number of people who use drugs, with 2. Cannabis is found to be the most commonly used drug in Punjab 3. Vulnerability to HIV and other blood- borne diseases through injecting drugs is also considerable, reveals the National Drug Use Survey, conducted and launched by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime at a local hotel on Thursday.
It estimates that six per cent 6. Although 4. Moreover, no structured treatment was available to the drug users free of charge. Gop, the daily down newsxxxv has write the Speakers at a seminar underscored the need for protecting the youth from falling victim to drug addiction by providing them facilities and encouraging them to take up healthy activities to change their lifestyle and urged media and civil society to play their role in creating awareness about impact of drugs on young lives.
It was important for all members of society to realize their responsibilities towards the youth and try their best to protect them from drugs. Zamanxxxvi has studies the drugs abuse among the student. Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.
The major drugs of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder.
Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personal concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences controlling and affecting human behavior.
Sleeping pills act as sleeping aid for sleeping disorders, mainly insomnia and sleep apnea. Sleeping pills have some amount of hypnotic drug, which helps in creating a tranquilizing effect on the mind. Due to this, the mind of the person calms down, thus promoting sleep. They are always recommended by doctors in smaller dosages, for shorter periods, however chronic the problem may be.
This is because, excess intake of sleeping pills exaggerate the problem further instead of curing it. Excess usage of sleeping tablets makes the individual get addicted to it leading to numerous and severe side effects on the body, sometimes proving to be fatal. Seventy-two recent-onset injection drug users and non-injection drug users were recruited in Quetta and Lahore, Pakistan, in Logistic regression identified independent correlates of recent-onset injection.
In Lahore, a perceived increase in drug cost was associated with higher odds of recent-onset injection, with no association in Quetta. Changes in perception of the drug supply may be associated with recent-onset injection drug use. Various tools and techniques engaged for the data collection, analysis and discussion of the data. The researcher used the quantitative research for the present study.
Research Problem Drugs and drugs user together are the negative element of the society. The number of drugs sources and drugs users are increasing with passage of time, which is more evident in younger age group that is year due to increasing trend of drugs in it expected that they will affect the well being of society in Rajanpur city.
This research is devised to study of the causes and consequences of drugs addicted among young age group in Rajanpur city, lower Punjab. Hypothesis:- There is an increasing trend of drug addiction in the young age group in Rajanpur city and adaption is required to cape with the problem. Research variables: The study will be based on the following variable.
Population, water, and climate, socio-economical, age groups percentage of drugs users, drugs sources, drugs types, Government agencies and financial support, health and drugs supply 3. Data collection:- The work based on primary as well as secondary data, the primary data about drugs types, source of drugs, impacts, and treatment of drug, will be collected with the help of questionnaire, survey, public opinion group discussions.
As will the secondary data regarding population, narcotics, employment etc will be collected from population department and neurcautics department Rajanpur. Data Analysis:- The researcher has based on primary data. The questionnaire has been distributed among different state holders of the study area randomly. The public interviews of Govt. The collected information have been converted into master sheet, and further classified into tables and graphs using statistical techniques.
The results have been presented along with recommendations. Universe: The present research is confined to the impact and use of the drugs addiction among young age group at the entire area of Rajanpur district, lower Punjab, Pakistan. Sampling Technique: The research will be based on random sampling, public interviews, and personal discussions with the relevant people and government officials. Sampling Size: Generally, the sum of questionnaires have been collected from the field in which 5 questionnaires collected from each union council of rural and charge circles of the urban areas.
Tools for Data Collection: Interviews guide have been used as a base for the collection of primary data. The tool has been consisted of structured questions using Urdu, English and Saraiki languages. The secondary data about population, climate etc have been collected from the secondary sources. Pre-testing: The pre-testing was done to check the workability of questionnaire on five respondents, after pre-testing little modification, which was considered necessary were made.
During data collection, some of the respondents were not willing for the sharing of information so that some of the introductory and motivation questions were included in the beginning of the questionnaire. Field Experience: In the field the researcher meet respondents to collect data.
The data was collected from respondents in the sampling frame. To get information from the respondents structured questions were used. To get maximum information, the questions of the questionnaire had been translated in Urdu in front of female so that they can understand in better way. The district located from E to East longitudes and N to latitudes. Dera Ghazi Khan is covered the district in the north, Muzaffargarh district in the north-east, south-east, Barkhan and Musakhel district of Baluchistan in the west.
Drugs Addiction: Drug addiction has been characterized by the National Institute on Drug Abuse as a complex and chronic brain disease. People who have a drug addiction experience compulsive, sometimes uncontrollable, craving for their drug of choice.
Typically, they will continue to seek and use drugs in spite of experiencing extremely negative consequences as a result of using. Research has shown that prolonged drug use causes a chemical change in the brain of the addict that alters the brain's reward system that prompts compulsive drug seeking in behavior called the rewards. For, addiction can become a chronic illness, meaning that they can have relapses similar to relapses than can happen with other chronic diseases - such as diabetes, asthma and hypertension - when patients fail to comply with their treatment.
These relapses can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Updated November 28, Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. Drug addiction is a complex brain disease. It is characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of extremely negative consequences. Drug seeking becomes compulsive, in large part as a result of the effects of prolonged drug use on brain functioning and on behavior. For many people, drug addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after long periods of abstinence.
Specific effect and Consequences of drugs addiction: Effects of drugs abuse are as follow: 4. Alcohol: Alcohol is contained in drinks such as beer, wine, brandy, spirits and whisky. It is an extremely potent drug. It acts on their body primarily as a depressant and lowers down the brain activity. However, in low doses it can be a stimulant. If used in excess, it will damage or even kill body tissues including muscles and brain cells.
Its consumption causes a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses impair judgment and coordination. With extreme intoxication the drinker may lapse into comma. Alcohol has produced many enjoyable moments and sad ones as well. The street names used for alcohol include: booze, pints, slush, brew and jolly juice. If combined with other depressants of the central nervous system, much lower doses of alcohol will produce the effect just described.
Repeated use can lead to dependency. Sudden withdrawal of alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms including severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations and convulsions. Alcohol withdrawal can be life threatening. Long term consumptions particularly when combined with poor nutrition can led to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and the liver.
Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. These infants have irreversible physical abnormalities and mental retardation. Tobacco Tobacco comes in form of cigarettes, cigars, snuff and in smokeless tobacco. Cigarettes are considered a gateway drugs-a drug first experimented with before trying other drugs with greater psychoactive effects.
Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to contract heart disease. Lungs, larynx, esophagus, bladder, pancreatic and kidney cancer also strike smokers. Smoking during pregnancy poses serious risk. Spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weight and fatal and infant deaths are all more likely to occur when the pregnant woman is a smoker. The most dangerous substance in tobacco is nicotine. Although it is implicated in the onsets of heart attacks and cancer, its dangerous roles is reinforcing and strengthening the desire to smoke.
Because nicotine is highly addictive, addicts find it very difficult to stop smoking. The likelihood of contracting lung cancer is greatly reduced by quitting smoking. The street names used for tobacco include cigs, smokes, mezzo, fegi and butts. Marijuana It is commonly known as bhang. Also known as marijuana and hashish cannabis resin. Cannabis is a bisexual stalk plant with green leaves and grows wild in many parts of the country. The cultivation of the herbal cannabis commonly known as bhang is spread throughout the country especially Mt.
Kenya region. Cannabis is grown in forests, hilly terrain, river banks or concealed among other crops far away from homes. Chemical spraying is to be recommended for eradication. All forms of cannabis have negative, physical and mental effects. Substantial increase in heartbeat, blood shot eyes, a dry mouth and throat and increased appetite are characteristics of its use. Research shows that those use them like students do not retain knowledge when under influence.
Motivation and cognition may be altered making the acquisition of new information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis. Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in the lungs for as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer agents than tobacco smoke. Long term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependents and require more of the drug to get the same effect.
The drug can become the centre of their lives. Heroin: This is a narcotic drug that lowers perception of pain. Seizure statics indicate that nationals of Nigeria, Tanzania and Pakistan are the major traffickers. Kenya nationals have also been arrested for trafficking the drug locally and abroad.
In , 22 suspects and a total 17 kg of this drug were seized compared to 9 kg in making an increase of Local abuse of this drug is prevalent in Nairobi, Mombasa and Malinda towns. The use of this drug leads to Euphoria, reduced appetite, chronic bronchitis, tetanus, hepatitis and endocarditic. It is medically used as anesthetic and cough suppressant. Cocaine: It is a crystalline-whitish powder chemically produced by cocoa leaves.
This drug is sourced from South Africa of Brazil and Colombia but its availability and abuse in Kenya is minimal. Only 1 kg and gm was seized in and respectively. The leaves traditionally were chewed to suppress hunger. It is applied to the gum of the mouth, tongue, eyelids or private parts to delay orgasm.
It is also injected and favorably snorted. Its use causes sleeplessness, excitement, loss of appetite, increased sexual desire and feeling of self satisfaction. Prolonged use leads to loss of weight, impotence, blindness, orgasm failure, stomach problems, liver and lung damage.
Overdose leads to death due to respiratory paralysis or cardiac arrest. Consequences of drug abuse by the youth The abuse of alcohol and other drugs lead to acute effect on the body. It alters judgement, vision, coordination and speech and also leads to risk taking behaviour. Drug use increases the likelihood of being involved in traffic accidents which may lead to death or injury.
In the Pakistan alcohol related highway, accidents are the principle cause of death among young people aged teenage drivers. About half 0f all youth death in drowning, fires and suicide and homicides are alcoholic related. The youth involved in drug related problems affecting their relation with family members and friends.
They are likely to be involved in fights and these get them into trouble with the law. Because drugs lead to irresponsible sexual behaviour, girls abusing drugs are likely to get pregnant. Drug use is known to lower performance and productivity. In some cases some of the youngsters may resort to embezzlement, forgery, corruption, bribery and extortion in order to many their drinking habits.
Prolonged drinking and use of drugs in some situation leads to psychiatric disorders such as delusional state and chronic dementia. It may lead to death from, for example alcoholic poisoning. Overdose of some of the drugs because death and prolonged use of most of them lead to a host life threatening diseases. Drug use leads to poor performance in learning.
Drugs erode self discipline and motivation necessary for learning. Research shows that drug use leads to declined in academic performance. Drug use is closely tied to being truant and dropping out of school. Those using drugs are mostly likely to skip school. A research in Philadelphia shows that dropouts were almost twice as likely to be frequent drug users. Drug use is associated with crime and misconduct that disrupt the maintenance of an orderly and safe school atmosphere conducive to learning.
It leads to distraction of school property and classroom disorder as was seen in many Kenyan schools in the year Drug use has also been linked to law breaking and involvement in other form of crime. Drug users engage in fights, distraction and disrespect to others. Some steal from family members, friends or employers to buy drugs. Police records indicate relations between alcoholism and various aggressive and criminal acts.
Investigation by sociologists and scientists on alcoholism crime relationship reveal that there is a resemblance between structure of alcoholics and criminals. Crimes are usually planned in liquor shops and bars where alcohol is sold. The offenders generally consume alcohol or liquor to overcome their inhibitions and emotional strains.
Alcohol and narcotic help remove the element of self criticism from the criminal in relation to himself and his acts. Alcoholism and drug addiction being a conduct forbidden by law lead to related crimes like illicit spirit distilling and alcoholic brewery, smuggling of intoxicating drugs, racketeering, underhand deal in transmission of alcohol and narcotics from one place to another and bribing officials to escape arrest and punishment.
The use of marijuana is not without significant health hazards. In general, acute effects are better studied than those of chronic use, and more studies are needed that focus on disentangling effects of marijuana from those of other drugs and adverse environmental conditions. Repeated heroin use changes the physical structure and physiology of the brain, creating long-term imbalances in neuronal and hormonal systems that are not easily reversed.
Heroin also produces profound degrees of tolerance and physical dependence. Tolerance occurs when more and more of the drug is required to achieve the same effects. With physical dependence, the body adapts to the presence of the drug and withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced abruptly.
Withdrawal may occur within a few hours after the last time the drug is taken. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 24—48 hours after the last dose of heroin and subside after about a week. However, some people have shown persistent withdrawal signs for many months.
Finally, repeated heroin use often results in addiction—a chronic relapsing disease that goes beyond physical dependence and is characterized by uncontrollable drug-seeking no matter the consequences. Heroin is extremely addictive no matter how it is administered, although routes of administration that allow it to reach the brain the fastest i. Once a person becomes addicted to heroin, seeking and using the drug becomes their primary purpose in life.
Cigarette smoking harms nearly every organ in the body. It has been conclusively linked to cataracts and pneumonia, and accounts for about one-third of all cancer deaths. The overall rates of death from cancer are twice as high among smokers as non-smokers, with heavy smokers having rates that are four times greater than those of non-smokers. Foremost among the cancers caused by tobacco use is lung cancer— cigarette smoking has been linked to about 90 percent of all cases of lung cancer, the number one cancer killer of both men and women.
Source: Fowler et al. About 90 percent of all deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are attributable to cigarette smoking. It has also been well documented that smoking substantially increases the risk of heart disease, including stroke, heart attack, vascular disease, and aneurysm. Exposure to high doses of nicotine, such as those found in some insecticide sprays, can be extremely toxic as well, causing vomiting, tremors, convulsions, and death.
In fact, one drop of pure nicotine can kill a person. Nicotine poisoning has been reported from accidental ingestion of insecticides by adults and ingestion of tobacco products by children and pets. Death usually results in a few minutes from respiratory failure caused by paralysis. Although we often think of medical consequences that result from direct use of tobacco products, passive or secondary smoke also increases the risk for many diseases.
Environmental tobacco smoke is a major source of indoor air contaminants; second hand smoke is estimated to cause approximately 3, lung cancer deaths per year among non-smokers and contributes to more than 35, deaths related to cardiovascular disease. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the home is also a risk factor for new cases and increased severity of childhood asthma. Additionally, dropped cigarettes are the leading cause of residential fire fatalities, leading to more than 1, deaths each year.
Along with thousands of other damaging chemicals, tar can lead to lung cancer and acute respiratory diseases. International and national legislative and policy frameworks Pakistan is signatory to the three international drug control treaties. The objectives of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs as amended by the Protocol were to limit the possession, use, trade, distribution, import, export, manufacture, and production of drugs - essentially substances such as opium, cocaine and their derivatives and cannabis - exclusively to medical and scientific purposes.
The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, , additionally provides comprehensive measures against drug trafficking, which include preventing precursor chemicals being diverted into the manufacture of illicit drugs as well as provisions to counter money laundering.
Therefore, the three international drug control conventions, to which Pakistan is a party, together regulate both plant based substances and their derivatives - heroin, cocaine, cannabis and synthetic or psychotropic substances. Further, they should do so in a coordinated effort. Governments should also take all practicable measures to assist those whose work requires them to gain an understanding of the problems of drug use and of its prevention, and also promote such understanding among the general public if there is a risk that drug use becomes widespread.
Pakistan has ratified these international obligations and included them in national legislation. At present, the Control of Narcotic Substances Act, , is in force. The Act prohibits the cultivation, production, manufacturing, extraction, preparation, transportation, possession, trade, financing, and trafficking of narcotics and psychotropic or controlled substances except for scientific, industrial or medical purposes.
Though not implemented fully, the Act further stipulates that each provincial government is required to register all drug users to facilitate treatment and rehabilitation. The law also prescribes that each registered drug user should carry a registration card. Finally, the Act empowers provincial governments to establish as many treatment centers as are considered necessary to ensure proper treatment of drug users and their rehabilitation.
This policy also seeks to promote international cooperation for mutual support and partnership against narcotic drugs. The strategies in place are three-fold: Supply Reduction: Dismantling of drug trafficking networks, limiting the smuggling, trafficking and distribution of narcotics in the country and strict control on movements of precursor chemicals through an elaborated precursor control regime.
Demand Reduction: Reducing the demand of illicit drugs through awareness programmes, preventive education, treatment and rehabilitation as well as harm reduction programmes. The Anti-Narcotics Policy is translated into practical measures in the Government's Drug Abuse Control Master Plan for the period to , which aims "to reduce the health, social and economic costs associated with drug trafficking and substance abuse in Pakistan" and it envisages a "drug-free Pakistan by ".
The strategy focuses on supply reduction through invigorated and strengthened law enforcement, with demand reduction through accelerated initiatives and increased international support. In particular, the Master Plan Places emphasis on sustained, continuous drug use prevention programs for schools and communities, improved treatment services, and expansion of the Government's capacity to collect and maintain data related to drug use. Provides for increased guidance to and support for non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations.
This support is to develop, implement, monitor, and evaluate drug-related prevention projects at provincial and district levels. Also envisaged is the development of prevention campaigns for electronic and print media to target rural youth and other specific groups. In addition, the Force is to establish additional drug treatment centres.
Special measures are recommended for street children with solvent use problems and for women with drug use problems. Advocates establishing technical working groups to address and make recommendations on injecting drug use, street children using solvents, and HIV in prisons. People perception about drug abuse: 4. Introductory of participants Rajanpur Distract: The study is based on field questionnaire to achieve the objectives of the study, questionnaires were distributed among different resource persons.
In which 50 questionnaires were returned with complete answers and considered for the analysis. For more comprehensive results, most of the questionnaires were collected from Rajanpur Tehsil, while some Qanongo Halqas of the Jampur Tehsil that touches the surrounding of Rajanpur were also considered.
As Rajanpur Teshil in fall in mostly populated areas, so that the majority of the respondents selected from this Tehsil. The study areas were further subdivided into different zones so that to real each individual on their three should. Marital status: Different participants were also asked about their marital status. Age Group: During field survey question were asked about the exact age of the individual. This results that most of the drugs abuse people in the study area are in young age.
Profession: Different participants are different profession in Rajanpur Distract. Education: During field survey we see different education level in this area. University student are involve the drugs. Female are not participant. Drug abuse familiarity and use Generally, questions were asked from the people related to drug abuse in Rajanpur district. The first two questions were asked about the familiarity of the person to drug abuse.
The number of usage of marijuana seems higher in the area, followed by smoking and sheesha etc. Infect, this is a big challenge for the law and orders agencies. And other we asked his family and friends relation who introduce and you feel bad or guilty during usage drugs. People given the opinion related to drugs. Then we do a question of people of Rajanpur Distract you know anyone is selling the drugs in your area.
And then three questions were asked about the security forces. And important question asked the person of Rajanpur Distract why security forces are not stop them the drugs seller. And other questions of the people of Rajanpur Distract are you know any person who operates a drugs lab, making and selling the drugs. Any members are using the drugs in your household.
Other two questions are asked on his health problems. I asked a question of Rajanpur Distract people do you live without drugs. And asked that interfere with you sleeping drugs use. After that three questions were asked the medical problems. I asked that drugs seem necessary to have a good time in fit in. So we asked the participant alcohol were used in High school in Rajanpur area. Then another question asked that parents allow hosting a beer party for some friends in your home.
Then asked a question have you tried to stop or control using drugs. And important question asked you ever been in a jail due to use drugs. Other question asked you engaged in illegal activities in order to obtain drugs. We know the law in order is against the drugs in Rajanpur Distract.
Other we asked the question of smoking really release your tension. Then the two questions asked tried to stop the drugs. Last three questions were asked the participants given the suggest to remove the use of drugs on young stuns and asked the law and order against the drugs in your area third and last asked give any comments of you know better suggestion to minimize the drugs user.
Smoking use was highest among 16 to 20 year olds and heroin use was highest among 20 to 25 year olds. Conclusion Pakistan is today notorious for many things, but in the last 20 years, drug production and addiction has increasingly become just one of them. The issue of drug addiction is often overshadowed by the many of the country's including Pakistan. The drug abuse is rapidly growing in Pakistan and in South Asia in general. Pakistan has the largest heroin consumer market in the south-west Asia region.
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