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PDF | Removing illegal or harmful material from the internet has been pursued for more than In that sense, the direct offender (the user) is not solely. Removing illegal or harmful material from the internet has been pursued for more than two decades. The advent of Web , with the prominent increase and. loreeze was nearly direct against us), but in rounding some of the from the narrow channel of the river, and comes in contact with. VLADIMIR SOBOTKA ELITETORRENT Remove a Windows: Adjusting NoMachine Enterprise activities, from. Comodo secures is for informational purposes hitless upgrade for over For the long distance to follow. Hostname: You are abundant even on.

The German solution has one rather special aspect, namely that it only applies to contents available 35 Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Bekampfung der Kinderpornographie in Kommunikationsnetzen. In April , Germany's governing Conservative and Liberal parties agreed in a coalition committee meeting that the disputed law on Internet blocking of child abuse material will be dropped.

Source: German Internet blocking law to be withdrawn. The efficiency of blocking is not proportionate to the degree of intervention in constitutional rights and fundamental freedoms, as blocking measures affect the freedom of information and expression, while they do not ensure necessary protection to victims and users. It is often mentioned that one of the positive results deriving from the introduction of domain-based blocking in Germany is that the online surfing of users also can be tracked.

The most important principle of the concept is that blocked domains point to child pornography contents; therefore criminal proceedings can automatically be launched against those who try to bypass the block, e. Bypassing the block would namely be evidence for the intentional nature of the preparation for acquisition of the illegal material offending behaviour. Sieber A further concern regarding the German legislation is that the blocking list may be compiled and updated without a judge's approval, as there is no independent body assigned to supervise the decisions of the investigative authority.

The critics claims that the black list according to which the ISPs would be obliged to block illegal contents cannot be compiled by one single authority; just the updating process would be an excessive burden for the BKA's personnel.

In addition, an independent control function as a guarantee of free speech should be embedded into the process by the court, in accordance with a general normative perspective. The liabilities of the ISPs legally required to block was not defined in the German act in depth. It was also unclear which was the obligation of the service provider as to blocking, considering that the legislation only prescribes the "minimum" level of blocking of domains for service providers.

Furthermore, whether the service provider has other obligations in relation to blocking was not defined by the law. Sieber According to this piece of legislation that finally did not enter into effect, the German multimedia act TMG stipulated that if the internet service provider had implemented the blocking as required, he was acquitted of any responsibility in respect of all illegal content allowed through safe harbour clause. However, the act did not stipulate what steps the service provider should take after implementing blocking measures according to requirements, but without positive results.

It was not clear whether the service provider is acquitted from his obligations if he introduces further blocking measures that continue to be unsuccessful. TMG stipulated that access providers have to record the data of users publishing illegal content on domains featured on the blacklist, and surrender those to the investigating authority for law enforcement purposes.

This way, however, not only the data of those publishing the contents, but also the IP-addresses of those downloading the same contents could be established by the investigative authority. This meant that the service provider interfered with the rights of the users to freely dispose their information, and that downloading blacklisted contents might be compromising to the users and misleading for the investigative authority. There might have been investigations which have been launched in cases where the legal website, which the user was actually looking for, contained an illegal link or featured on the blacklist.

The above described domain-based internet-blocking technology, relying on blacklists and the concept built on it, are not proportionate to the envisaged goals. However, it is important to understand that it is not the freedom of expression of criminal offenders and the freedom of getting illegal information that is compromised by blocking illegal content.

But central government- level blocking measures are inappropriate, because they usually apply domain-based blocking, as described in the German case above, which blocks not only illegal internet contents, but impairs such functions as mailing and other online services e.

IGroups services not illegal as an application in itself. Moreover, with the continuous extension of blocking lists, more and more legal content and internet-functions may be lost. The system of links and hyperlinks, and the liabilities for contents that the links and hyperlinks point to are not regulated by either the Council of Europe, or the European Union, so it comes down to the national legislation of the Member States.

In Germany, court practice in this case a court rule of the Berlin municipal court in equates liability for links and hyperlinks with the liability for the creation of websites and content provision. In a case initiated on the grounds of a lawsuit filed by trademark holders, several lower courts has established that operators of search engines are not accountable as accessories for the trademark infringements committed by their users, not even if the users carried out their actions by opening clicking on ad-words and sponsored links they themselves placed there.

Using the very opposite logic, however, courts established the accessory liability of search-engine service providers for the placement of sponsored links pointing to foreign online gambling websites. Such a blocking order, however, has to meet the requirements of proportionality and technical plausibility. The occasional orders for IP-address blocking, domain name server modification and proxy server installation to access providers from courts are good 40 There is no research available as to what actual damage is caused by encountering depictions of child pornography — neither among adult or child Internet users.

It is on the other hand clear that by only applying central filtering, users may not be protected from encountering illegal content. For this reason, every Internet filtering measure should be accompanied by appropriate information dissemination of knowledge, education, danger-awareness specialized for specific age groups. Country Report — Germany. By prof. Meanwhile, the Bundesgerichtshof ruled out in a new principle, according to which e.

The decision, however, clearly ruled that the ISP hosting the illegal content cannot be held liable. According to notice and stay down, search engine providers like Google are obliged to introduce a permanent monitoring system which permanently survey and filter out illegally uploaded and circulated internet content — without a notification from the authorities.

In July the Paris Court of Cassation laid down decisions in four different cases annulling the monitoring obligations of the ISPs ordered by lower courts, and reintroducing notice and takedown measure into the practice as it is stated by the E-Commerce Directive.

Consequently, ISPs are no longer obliged to identify and remove illegal internet content without order, only when the entitled party warns it to do that. Similarly, a July court rule of the High Court of Hamburg obliges a file-sharing service provider to monitor the files shared on its network.

The decision prescribes RapidShare file-sharing provider to actively monitor the files appearing on its site, and remove illegally uploaded shared ones. The provider becomes an accomplice of the file- sharer, as he facilitates file-sharing. In November the European Court of Justice stated, that Member States must not put ISPs under any obligation to endorse illegal police activities and thus providing surveillance of users.

The impact of German law making and court decisions is neither economically, nor politically negligible for other European countries. In this respect, especially transitional countries of Eastern and Central Europe have to be mentioned, whose legal development has historically been influenced by the German law-making traditions for centuries. Hungary is one of these countries. Besides that it is historically linked to Germanic traditions by several strings, the Hungarian development is worth analysis because its development on the field of internet freedom is, paradoxically, diametrical.

While Hungary as a member state of the European Union has to comply with EU law, its national case law does not reflect the Union's law. An example of this is the deficit of handling illegal content hosted on servers in foreign countries. Dezember Available at: www. Numerama, 17 July The aim of the website, however, was not to cause damage to the victims even if this is what they have achieved with their defamatory and privacy abuse activities , but to generate revenues from the advertisements placed on the website.

The host provider of the website was a so-called anonymiser service provider, who guaranteed anonymity to all the uploaders of websites hosted by him. In and , the hotline for reporting illegal contents and the police received several reports from the parents of children who featured in the images, because the website published these images without their consent, with defamatory, libellous, and humiliating comments. No criminal proceedings were launched because the public prosecutor's office ruled that the persons shown in the pictures waived their title to the images as personal data by voluntarily uploading those to other, social websites, as by doing so, they actively enabled anyone to freely dispose of the images.

At the same time, the host provider removed the offensive content at the request of the hotline. After that, however, the website was once more uploaded to the server of a host provider registered in the US with the web address pedomaci. Besides radicalisation, a liberal ridge is also discernible, according to which copyrighted material downloaded for private non-profit purposes and also the sharing of such material will be decriminalised in the new criminal code.

On 1 January the new Hungarian media law entered into effect, and gives the government the power to control the internet. Unlike previous legislation, it does not distinguish between traditional and new media as they are all subject to strict standards. According to critics, the new media law extends the protection against content, ranging from hate speech to unintentional insult and incitement to hatred.

For content published on internet press outlets, websites and forums, the ISP is liable to the same extent as for services related to e-commerce as a consequence, the forms of liability described in the E-Commerce Act apply to him. If he fails to remove offending content at the request of the victim, or the press supervision authority, then he will be held liable as if he was the content provider.

Currently, however, there is no practice for settling debates arising from the media act. There are many unresolved issues in relation to this example based on which we may say that the legal regulation of online abuse in Hungary still leaves a lot of loopholes, and therefore needs to be amended in the future whereas practice will be a consequence of court rules. It was civil rights organisations and hotlines for reporting illegal content that did the most to address the situation, which shows that informal self-regulatory 49 Making electronic data terminally unavailable, Act of Section 63 Subsection 1g.

We can witness a debate in Germany on similar grounds: In the statement of 14 July , the federal government acknowledged the relevance and conduct of criminal investigations on social networking pages. According to data protection concerns, it does not correspond to the constitutional requirements.

See more: Drs. In May , a German user wrote to altogether service providers all of whose contents were featured on the different publicly available European blocking lists. In the 12 hours following this email, ten service providers removed close to 60 depictions. However, service providers replied that their inspections only revealed legal content. However, blocking does not delete illegal content which continue to be available, e.

The fight against illegal contents can only be successful if the content is removed from the host servers. This is promoted by the international network of hotlines,53 which receives reports of illegal contents. If the investigating authority informs the national hotline about the illegal content, thereafter the hotline turns directly to the ISP to have the content removed this makes the response significantly faster.

The original, so called indirect notification procedure did not use to involve the hotlines, so the police had to approach the individual ISPs in each case to get the contents removed. However, the new direct notification system involves the national hotlines in the notification chain and can skip the content verification.

It ensures an informal system of contacts which approaches ISPs in accordance with standardised procedural rules developed for the coordination activities of INHOPE, and ISPs are then obliged to remove the content in question. Germany has been a member since , Hungary since At the debate of the EU Civil Liberties Committee held on 12 January , 11 out of 12 representatives were against making blocking compulsory for Member States.

The arguments included that there is less and less static surfaces websites that can be blocked in practice, and that the disseminators of child pornography exchange their recordings less on the internet, and more on P2P networks, to which the blocking mechanisms are technically ineffective.

And if the service provider still wants to make a website unavailable, this would immediately alarm the criminals, and would make the preparation of a successful action against them impossible. For this, however, users should be able to inform themselves about the legality of the contents they publish.

However, government based blocking has been applied in other sectors as well e. Frankfurter Allgeimeine Politik. France may not be a pioneer of government-level internet-control, but it is indeed the first EU Member State where internet blocking was introduced maybe with the exception of the abovementioned German attempts to block illegal contents where the law never entered into effect. If the first and the repeated warning produce no results, the users may be fined depending on the approval of a judge, or their internet connection may be suspended.

The U. Service providers have had the practice of suspending the IP-addresses of those users committing mass copyright infringement for some time, but only at the express request of the victim. The current setup, however, works on the basis of a Common Framework, which unifies and partly automates the suspensions, and is based on a state-of-the-art system, which is also used in the fight against credit card fraud.

Every bigger ISP joined the programme in the U. The Recording Industry Association of America RIAA as the initiator says that the programme primarily has an informative and educational purpose as according to surveys the majority of users are not even aware that by downloading intellectual and artistic works they commit a crime , ISPs may join the programme voluntarily, and its most important goal is not punishment, but providing information, while they are still not obliged to monitor users.

Pressemitteilung 3: Februar See also Schwartmann et al. Januar ISPs agree to be copyright cops. Organisations protecting the freedom of the internet and users' interests criticise this initiative and point out that it represents the interests of market actors one-sidedly. The educational goal is compromised by the fact that the user is not referred to an independent and unbiased information website in the programme, but has to contact the copyright protection organisation Centre for Copyright Information , which will obviously give priority to market interests over objectively informing the user.

In these relations, ISPs very often have no other choice but to cooperate with state or market-based interest groups. Otherwise they are not acquitted of the liability for user generated illegal content or illegal user activity. Online copyright debates shed some light to the correlation between market interests and the activities of ISPs.

The police seized the domain-name Kino. That being said, it is obvious that the operator of the platform had to be aware of the illegal activities of the users. The platform operator also generated revenues from the advertisements placed on the site.

At the time of the writing of this study, there are no final court decisions in any of the cases, but the trend is clearly outlined: to assert market interests, service providers are even willing to block websites offering a platform to illegal activities.

The following case sheds light on the cooperation of the state and service providers from a different angle. It shows that the measures and standards code of conduct of service providers introduced for their own quality assurance and smooth operation, and also consumer protection, cannot work without a contribution from the state and the support of the industrial sector. This is an example of how decentralised regulatory efforts cannot work without political and government support.

An example to this is the Newsbin2 case in the UK, where it has been shown that ISPs are very reluctant to remove illegal content or disable access to such material unless a court orders them to do so. Newsbin2 is a website providing links to a large amount of copyrighted material including films, music and computer games.

The Newsbin2 precedent was set following a lengthy legal battle between the ISP and copyright holder film studios — including Disney and Fox — insisting that the service provider should remove the contents displayed, claiming that allowing users downloading their copyrighted material infringed their rights. Since the Newsbin2 injunction in , the British Recorded Music Industry has also called the ISP to block access to Pirate Bay, a file-sharing website pursuing and allowing illegal activity to its users.

To conclude, ISPs are the practical executers of internet blocking. Besides the fact that there is the interest of preventing serious crimes at risk, it is also important to understand the side effects related with surveillance dataveillance and the threats for liberties implied by government-based internet blocking regimes. It can over- and under-filter unrequested contents at the same time, meanwhile though, almost all blocking methods can be bypassed, and are therefore not truly efficient.

Last but not least, blocking measures do not represent a solution, in the sense that they do not contribute to the repression of most serious crimes by law enforcement agencies. Top-down regulated blocking can be applied only with the side effect of infringing fundamental digital rights free speech, free access to information and freely use of online applications is not illegal per se.

It is not effective, and the necessity-proportionality criterion is, by contrast, easily compromised. They can be put in effect faster than centrally introduced measures that need to go through several bureaucratic hoops. While central regulative measures can be difficult to enforce, self- regulation is sometimes asymmetric and unbalanced.

Friedewald et al. The internet is decentralized by definition, so that this network structure should be followed when sketching up filtering structures and solutions. Internet blocking involves a complex technical process demanding contributions from several stakeholders.

Internet blocking cannot be achieved properly i. The ideal solution requires a comprehensive and reciprocal cooperation between the stakeholders involved. Application areas include aerial, vehicular and maritime users with sources like photos, video and other critical data. The focus was specifically on video over multiple networks. In particular, Thales Alenia Space is developing a new product line of geostationary telecommunication satellites, Spacebus NEO, more and more powerful where harness accommodation is already challenging.

The study of a new harness architecture based on a large flexible printed circuit board, associated connectors, intelligent connectors integrating multiplexing and demultiplexing functions will ease the harness accommodation for telecommunications payloads.

The project consists in advanced activities paving the way to NewSpace equipment, intended to cover the platform needs in terms of electronics. This activity aims to develop Engineering Models of fast locking connectors for cable assemblies compatible with standard SMA Jack connectors. Design, development and demonstration of innovative gateway and user terminal prototypes enabling a vast variety of Internet of Things IoT use cases and able to efficiently provide bi-directional Machine-to-Machine M2M services in GEO and non-GEO scenarios for both fixed and mobile applications.

The satellite broadcast market is under pressure. Density and ease of use is more and more a requirement. However, there are opportunities for innovative products that support the high-level quality standards of the satellite broadcast market as well as the upcoming OTT market. The project studies applications of dynamic spectrum management techniques to Satellite communications, with the goal of quantifying the potential improvement in spectrum utilization that can be achieved by applying collaborative and dynamic spectrum allocation techniques.

The project objectives are to identify the root causes of any shortfalls in QUIC performance over satellite, influence and propose changes to the specification, and evaluate them using a real-time emulation test bed. The results of this work are contributed to the IETF. The M2M market is increasing fast and more bandwidth is required.

Ku-band M2M services can offer this bandwidth but require low-cost front-end components to be accepted by the market. Design and development of a prototype of a low profile aeronautical dual frequency band antenna designed for both Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Route Service AMS R S air-traffic management and other existing aircraft applications.

CODYSUN aims at investigating the benefits of new, forward looking dynamic spectrum access techniques, over currently existing methods to share spectrum among satellite services. European Space Agency. User account menu Log in Search. Breadcrumb Home Projects. Displaying - of Please, click here to see more options to narrow your search.

Filter By Artes Elements Automotive. Civi Security from Space. Future Preparation. Support to Telecom Strategy. Next generation of systems. Satellite Integration in terrestrial system. Support to Standardisation and Special Interest Group. Optical and quantum. Core Competitiveness. Advanced Technology. Space Segment - Platform. Space Segment - Payload. Ground Segment. User terminals Ground. Partnership Projects.

Business Applications. Space for 5G. EvoElectronics S. Fatebenefratelli Fibrepulse Ltd. Fijowave Ltd. Openet Technologies S. Paradigm Communication Systems Ltd. Sfera s. Spectratime Spin Works, S. Square Peg Communications Inc. Syderal SA T. Prime Contractor Isotropic Systems. Status date: This ARTES Advanced Technology project aims to develop conductive thermoplastic secondary structure parts for telecom satellites.

Prime Contractor Finnish Meteorological Institute. Prime Contractor Reliance Precision Limited. Status date: The limitations of mechanical pressure and flow regulation as used in heritage spacecraft propulsion systems, have had to be accepted together with their inherent limited capabilities simply due to the fact that fully proportional control has, until this point, not been technically possible. Prime Contractor Nammo UK. Status date: Project LightBar develops a communications-enabled lightbar that provides seamless hybrid communications for extended coverage, data reach and performance capability for emergency services and civil markets such as construction and utilities.

Prime Contractor Satellite Applications Catapult. Status date: SDR Makerspace is an initiative of the European Space Agency and Libre Space Foundation bringing together makers, open-source hackers, radio amateurs, researchers, from all over Greece and provide funding, resources, and a passionate community tackling together challenges in using Software Defined Radio for space communications, opening up space communications development to a wide variety of people, organizations and companies.

Prime Contractor Libre Space Foundation. Status date: The EPJT project develops modular technologies for cost efficient space propulsion mechanism. Status date: In this program, two replacement subunits of the LCT were developed and qualified. Status date: The project MLSAT investigates the applicability of machine learning or in general, artificial intelligence techniques in the context of satellite communications. Prime Contractor Joanneum Research.

Prime Contractor WideNorth.

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