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Georgina Barbarossa Manucha. Ana Pauls Popa. Boy Olmi Federico Zabaleta. Lidia Catalano Fidelina. Silvina Luna Gisella. Silvia Montanari Silvia. Luis Ziembrowski Brian McQueen. Lionel Campoy Colo. Brenda Gandini Ingrid. Carolina Aguirre. More like this. Storyline Edit. Did you know Edit. User reviews Be the first to review. Details Edit. Release date October 20, Argentina. Official site Official site Argentina. Blind Date.

Dori Media Contenidos Rosstoc. Technical specs Edit. Runtime 40 minutes. Related news. Contribute to this page Suggest an edit or add missing content. Top Gap. Las damas del liberalismo respetable. Cotarelo y Mori, Emilio. Cruz, Mary. La Habana: Editorial Letras Cubanas, Obra literaria de La Avellaneda. Havana: Editorial Letras Cubanas, La hija de Cuba. Culler, Jonathan. Theory of the Lyric. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, De Man, Paul.

Minneap- olis: University of Minnesota Press, The Rhetoric of Romanticism. New York: Columbia University Press, Boston: Harcourt, Houghton Miflin Harcourt, Matanzas: Imprenta la Pluma de Oro, Figarola Caneda, Domingo. Notes by Emilia Boxhorn. Fradera, Joseph M. New York: Berghahn Books, Fuente, Alejandro de la. Joseph M. Gabrial, Brian. Gies, David Thatcher. The Theatre in Nineteenth-Century Spain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Album cubano de lo bueno y de lo bello: Revista quince- nal, de moral, literatura, bellas artes y modas.

Edith Checa. Sevilla: Los Libros de Umsaloua, Lorenzo Cruz de Fuentes, 2nd ed. Lorenzo Cruz de Fuentes. Obras de la Avellaneda, VI. Havana: Impr. Miran- da, Carlos Bransby. Baltasar: Drama oriental en cuatro actos y en verso. Eduardo Lolo. Album de las Damas 8 November 2, , 3—5. Album cubano de lo bueno y de lo bello: Revista quincenal, de moral, literatura, bellas artes y modas I, Cuadernillos de viaje y La dama de gran tono.

Manuel Lorenzo Abdala. Semanario de literatura, historia, costumbres y viajes. Soler, calle de la Muralla, I, , —; — Madrid: Imprenta y esteriotipia de M. Rivadeneyra, Susana A. Memorias de viaje y relexiones sobre la mujer. Santiago de Cuba: Editorial Oriente, Obras de la Avellaneda. La Habana: Impr. Miranda, Obra selecta. Mary Cruz. Caracas: Biblioteca Ayacucho, Madrid: Editorial Verbum, Catherine Davies. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, La Habana: Arte y Literatura, Sab in El Museo, vol.

Imprenta Mercantil de Santiago S. Emil Volek. Madrid: Editorial Fundamentos, Harter, Hugh A. Boston: Twayne, Historia de la literatura hispanoamericana 2. Kelly, Edith L. Lazo, Raimundo. MacNeill Miller, John. Mellor, Anne K. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, Romanticism and Feminism.

Romanticism and Gender. New York: Routledge, Otra mirada a la Peregrina. Santo Domingo. Puerto Rico. Meyer, Doris. Austin: University of Texas Press, Montero, Susana A. Estrategia y propuesta de un periodismo marginal. La Habana: Letras Cubanas, La Avellaneda bajo sospecha.

Miller, Beth. Berkeley: University of California Press, Navas-Ruiz, Ricardo. Salamanca: Anaya, Ortega del Villar Aniceto. Opera en un acto y nueve escenas. Script and Musical Score. Patrick Camiller. Princeton: Princeton University Press, February , — Tomo 5: Novelas y Leyendas. Madrid: M. Poder y sexualidad. Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, La Habana: Editorial Letras Cu- banas, Romero, Cira. Matanzas: Editorial Matanzas, El Movimiento Literario 29 December El Triunfo 4 July Selimov, Alexander.

Sommer, Doris. Berke- ley: University of California Press, Vieira-Branco, Maria Elena. University of Pennsylvania, Baldassarre: Opera in Quattro Atti. Madrid: Zozaya, Musical score. Villaverde, Cirilo. Havana, 8—9 August , 2. Vincent, Patrick H. Volek, Emil. Williams, Edwin B. Bari: Palomar, Italian translation of Auto- biography.

Praha: Odeon, Sab: roman original. Elisabeth Pluton. Paris: Harmattan, French translation of Sab. Vilnius: Alma Littera, Lithuanian translation of Sab. Joly, N. Selections of Baltasar in French. William Freeman Burbank. London: B. Wilson W. Mexico: F. Hoeck, Love Letters. Dorrey Malcolm.

Habana: Tall. Sab and Autobiography. Nina M. Nina Scott and Doris Meyer. Ernest S. Thomas Walsh. New York, G. Anna-Marie Aldaz and W. Alice Stone Blackwell. Seymour Resnick. Agnes BlakePoor. Pan-American Poems: An Anthology. Boston: The Gorham Press, Edith L. Hispanic Issues On Line 18 : 1— During the summer of , she took the short trip to Niagara Falls, an experience that became the inspi- ration for her composition.

The two American compositions that the trip to the United States had inspired were both masterpieces, addressing the nature of good government as one that is based on institutions that protect the freedom and exercise of genuine liber- ty among all of its citizens. These texts—the sonnet she wrote as a tribute to George Washington and the ode to Niagara Falls—are remarkable examples of political poetry, where American republicanism is praised as a model to be followed by other nations.

Such neglect of her ties to the United States extends even to the well-advertised English edition of her bib- lical drama Baltasar. We do so in an effort to illuminate the truly transnational inluence of an author whose work, we advocate, must be studied with all of these facets in mind. A second version of the poem appeared in her Obras containing major changes and alterations to the previous text, and with a footnote reminding readers that the text was originally written in , and then revised by the au- thor after her visit to the tomb of the American hero.

Furthermore, there are several references to the poem in the U. The publication of the sonnet in the U. The irst translation of the original version was published in the anthology of poetry Mexican and South American Poems Spanish and English , by Ernest S. Green and Miss H. Von Lowenfels — In the twentieth-century, the second English translation of the original sonnet of appeared in Pan-American Poems: An Anthology While Europe by a war lord was harassed, Its victories to blood-drenched soil conined, America a heaven-sent boon enshrined: The genius of her future welfare vast.

Therefore, for the critic, the substantial differences between both compositions make the rendition of the sonnet virtually a new poem. The uniqueness and novelty of George Washington as a political igure is made clear in the opening stanza of the poem.

The writer portrays the great American hero, General of the Revolutionary Army, irst President of the United States, and one of the founding fathers of the nation as a model of the virtues of a noble leader: Thou hast no peer in all the ages past, Nor will the future generations ind In annals dedicated to mankind Thy legacy of noble deeds surpassed. The condition of servitude imposed upon his subjects derives from the excessive pride of the tyrannical ruler, who only brings devastation, ruin, and deep sorrow to his country as the image of the wasteland suggests.

The American hero is depicted as a gift from heaven to his country and the world at large. Napoleon Bonaparte is represented as the archetype of the imperial tyrant Miller and Deyermond , while Washington embodies the greatness of the American statesman who is deeply committed to the ideals of freedom.

The critic explains that in the last composition published in her Obras , Washington becomes not only the model leader for the United States, but an American hero who is also a symbol of democracy and progress for the Americas Miller and Deyermond The cli- max of the sonnet is reached with the last three verses, in which the author conveys with a rhetorical play of a few words the essence and attributes of the great statesman.

The author shows a genuine concern and profound understanding of the problem of tyranny, which she describes as a servile and adulatory obedience to the lord, in contrast to democracy, which rests on the respect for freedom and the exercise of individual liberty by its citizens. Finally, the poet is successful in conveying to her audience the feeling of reverence she wishes to inspire in her readers for the ideals for which America stands, embodied in the igure of the great Amer- ican hero: George Washington Kelly Hail, valiant sign Of industrial progress, whose heights —To which slow-progressing nations rise— Dominate like a King the young Nation That yesterday, nascent in her robust arms Took liberty, and that today thriving From the common march jumps forth And astonishes the world, that sees it so great!

As we will demonstrate in the section that follows, this admiration can also be understood as an underscoring inluence for her ongoing abolitionist efforts on her native island. This shows an early and genuine concern for the emancipation of the slaves, and is but one example of her lifelong commitment to the aboli- tionist cause.

As a famous writer and public igure, she would unite these individuals around her novel Sab, an anti-slavery work of iction that was published in three dif- ferent geographical places throughout the world: Madrid in , New York in , and Cuba in Both promoted the author of the irst anti-slavery novel by actively associating her name with the abolitionist cause.

Additionally, during her ive-year temporary resi- dence in Cuba, the author worked behind the scenes with her husband, Do- mingo Verdugo, to protect the slaves from cruel mistreatment by utilizing the Spanish legal system. Through these ties, the female writer remained in contact with the most inluential Cuban igures in news publishing in New York: Cirilo Villaverde, Miguel T.

She most like- ly also communicated with several of the creole intellectuals living in exile in the United States during her two-month stay in the country in Both were closely associ- ated with her irst work of iction: Sab. Between the two friends there was a sincere af- fection and afinity: they both shared a genuine concern for the emancipation of the slaves and a mutual commitment to promote the abolition of slavery on the island. The young lawyer departed from Cuba to Spain in October of , where he stayed for a signiicant period of time.

Allo remained in Madrid until , probably postponing his return to the island due to the events of when many Cuban abolitionists faced the repression of the colonial government. For this reason, Allo, whose anti-slavery ideas were well-known, indeed found himself in Spain postponing his return to Cuba until when the polit- ical event had resolved.

As Kelly observes: While in Spain la Avellaneda was associated with several Cuban leaders working for political reforms. In the United States, he was devoted to teaching, and became a frequent collaborator with the American press, while remaining active in promoting his abolitionist views. Morales y Morales 43 His perseverant and selless dedication to the triumph of the two ideals that attracted and impassioned him, and to whom from a very young age he had given educated passion: the emancipation of the slaves and the lib- erty of his fatherland; sacrosanct ideals that the teachings of his beloved mentor Father Varela had ingrained in his heart.

Agustine, Florida, due to illness, and where he died the following year. This group of La Verdad collaborators played a major role in the prolonged debate leading up to the abolition of slavery by having a sustained impact on shaping public opinion in favor of the suppres- sion of the institution through their work in the press, literature, and lectures. In his speech on slavery, Allo formulated the political project of the ab- olitionist undercurrent group of Cuban writers, intellectuals and journalists, gathered around the bilingual newspaper La Verdad.

Allo brought the views of the undercurrent anti-slavery circle to the public by discussing openly the issue of slavery, placing abolition at the forefront of the national debate. He divulged to the public the political platform of the group, which was to unite the Cuban independence and abolitionist movements into one and the same national project. The lecture delivered at the Athenaeum supported the political project of the undercurrent anti-slavery nucleus of intellectuals built around La Ver- dad by providing an ideological background against the institution of slavery.

He advocates for the emancipation of the slaves on the island by applying economic logic against slavery and by exploring the grounds of Christian mo- rality and doctrine, advancing the fundamental truth that all human beings are made and born equal by their Creator and are entitled to the same rights.

They both based their aboli- tionist position primarily on Christian morality and doctrine, arguing that the system of slavery is contrary to the teachings of Christianity, and constitutes a violation of divine law. Parallel ideas are formulated in the texts to denounce and condemn the central institution of nineteenth-cen- tury Cuban society. As a ictional narrative, Sab describes the intimate human experience of a mulatto slave through a sequence of interconnected events.

In both texts, the idea of a Christian regeneration of humanity extends to bring about the change of Cuban colonial society by eliminating slavery as its cen- tral institution. For Sab, it is man- made law that allows the enslavement of other human beings and proclaims legal the institution of slavery. Adoremos sus juicios inescrutables. Oh, let us worship His inscrutable judgment! Who can understand it? But no, You will not always be silent.

God of all justice! Error, Ignorance, and absurd Prejudice: you will not always rule in the world: your decrepitude foretells your ruin. The world of salvation will resound over all the earth: old idols will topple from their profaned altars, and the throne of justice will rise brilliantly over the ruins of old societies.

Yes, a heavenly voice tells me this. In vain, it tells me, in vain will the old elements of the moral sphere ight against the regenerative principle: in vain will there be days of darkness and hours of discouragement in that terrible battle. God made his chosen people wait for forty years for the promised land, and those who doubted were pun- ished by never setting foot therein; but their children saw it.

Yes, the sun of justice is not far off. In his lecture, the lawyer and political economist states that the teachings of Christianity serve as the foundation for the authentic progress and prosperity of nations 5. Allo redeines the concept of wealth as not only material growth, but also encompassing the intellectual and moral development of society 5. Moreover, his lecture was also disseminated by the members of the abolitionist undercurrent group at La Verdad: the speech was delivered at the Cuban Democratic Athenaeum, the center founded by Miguel T.

Allo declares to his audience that the time has come for abolitionists to reassert their commitment to the emacipation of the slaves. In the irst, he demonstrates that the institu- tion is antagonistic to material prosperity. Allo devotes the next part to refuting pro-slavery arguments; and the inal section focuses on the measures that he proposes for the abolition of slavery in Cuba.

Allo claimed that slavery was antagonistic to wealth, condemned the institution as a violation of divine law, and then proceeded to refute every argument in favor of preserving the sys- tem of slavery. He explicitly rejected the fallacy that slavery is justiied by nat- ural law, arguing that all human beings are created equal by God, and therefore are endowed with the same nature.

Finally, he laid out a plan for the abolition of the institution of slavery in the island Morales y Morales Allo presents to his audience the question of slavery as an issue of human rights: that is, the defense of the God-given rights of all individuals, which must be at the center of politics and morality in any society 4.

Employing a persuasive rhetorical argument, he argues that the practice of slavery is mor- ally wrong and does not contribute to wealth, since civilization and prosperity can only be attained through the eradication of the institution. In his view, slavery has become the worst enemy of true progress in society, and only free countries can lourish while slave states fall into decadence 4—9. The irst argument that Allo formulates to condemn slavery is that the institution is against Christian doctrines of morality and virtue, which pro- claim the fraternity of all human beings.

He claims that the system of slavery is morally wrong and socially undesirable. Allo argues that authentic progress depends not only on the pursuit of material wealth but also on intellectual and moral prosperity. He declares: Jesus Christ taught all the principles which constitute true morality, prin- ciples which serve as the foundation of his divine religion, and which have brought to the people wealth, science, progress, and prosperity.

Wealth is not merely material; it is likewise intellectual and moral; and material wealth can- not even exist without creating the other two. Allo establishes a contrast between slave and free societies by compar- ing the decadence of slave states with the civilization and progress achieved by free nations, in order to show that without moral virtues and principles, nations cannot attain prosperity, and that the system of slavery must be eradi- cated because it destroys morality 8.

He alleges that the institution is contrary to nature, and that an inestimable moral beneit will be derived from the abolition of slavery 11— Allo counters the central idea of the proslav- ery thought that the institution was beneicial to society while challenging the assumption that defends the rightness of slavery as naturally based on the master-slave relationship, where the inferior slaves need their masters to act as irm and protective parents.

He insists that: To liberate our slaves is to fulill the law of God;. If we emancipate our slaves, we will be astonished at our physical and moral progress; if we do not emancipate them, we will be doubly parricides. That civili- zation, Jesus Christ, history, and our conscience cry to us against slavery. Always by the side of slavery are seen hunger, vices, and serfdom; while the Christian principle of the fraternity of men is ever accompanied by well-being, virtue, peace and happiness.

Let us not forget it; there is no prosperity without industry; there is no industry without intelligence; there is no intelligence without virtue; there is no virtue without religion; and there is no religion where there is slavery. All the intellects of Cuba are opposed to slavery, and more than one illustrious Cuban has liberated his slaves. I see, in ine, the misfortune of our land, and of the whole earth, still growing from slavery. Father Varela was named Professor of Philosophy at the Seminary of San Carlos and San Ambrosio of Havana in , where he distinguished himself as an outstanding educator.

During his academic career, the Catholic priest in- troduced numerous innovations in teaching and defended the right of women to receive equal education, a principle considered unusual at the time. While the Courts took no action on this plan, it represented the one occasion at the beginning of the nineteenth century when a notable clergyman took an aggressive anti-slavery stance.

When the courts were dissolved, Father Varela was sentenced to death by the Spanish government, and was compelled to seek refuge in the United States. The abolitionist clergyman spent much of this time in New York City, though his last years were spent in the city of San Agustin, Florida, where he had initially studied as a child. Father Varela was a defender of freedom and an abolitionist, but above all he was an exemplary priest who dedicated his entire life to the service of others, especially young people.

As a devoted clergyman, he lead his ministry in the Archdiocese of New York City for more than twenty-ive years, where he became an advocate for the Irish immigrants; and was appointed Vicar General of the New York Dioceses. As the founder of the irst Spanish-language periodical in the U. He also published many of his writings in the United States, such as Cartas a Elpidio.

In this piece, the theologian and philosopher defended the need for a solid religious education as the foundation upon which to cultivate civic virtues in society and to pro- mote the happiness of a nation and its people. Her text was an integral part of the debates over emancipation and reemerged at crucial moments of the long abolitionist movement, which lasted for more than sixty-years.

The work of iction was inluential in creating and maintaining an anti-slavery consciousness among the public. Throughout the nineteenth century, Sab was the only anti-slavery novel that was published in three separate countries, crossing geographical boundaries, an important fact that has been overlooked by scholars. The text was released for the irst time in Madrid as a book in , and later it was reprinted in serial form in the New York press in , and again in Havana in Additionally, Sab appeared serialized in publications in both Havana and New York, thus circulating among a wider audience.

Lastly, the text was propagated by creole intellectuals through articles that mention the novel, or through the work of writing reviews about the novel and its author. Such was the case of Cirilo Villaverde, who published in a review about the writer and her anti-slavery novel in El Faro Industrial de la Habana. This anti-slavery stance was not always expressed openly, but often took the more simple form of a tacit counter-slavery discourse in the paper.

Therefore, her poems appeared in the New York newspapers framed within the implicit anti-slavery discourse formulated by some of its collaborators, and editors like Cirilo Villaverde and Lorenzo de Allo, among others.

Her name was inextricably linked to Sab, and the notoriety she achieved due, in part, to its prohibition in by the Span- ish colonial authorities. La Verdad was a revolutionary publication founded in New York City in January of by the clandestine Cuban Council, which maintained contact with the revolutionary delegations on the island.

The Cuban writers and intellectuals who contributed to the bilingual publication had more complex political positions regarding annexation and the question of slavery. As Rodrigo Lazo explains: Given the presence of Cuban writers at La Verdad, a concomitant dis- course emerged in which the interests of Cuban people and the terrain of the island were portrayed as separate from Spain and, ostensibly separate from the United States. That separation, which was part of a patriotic dis- course, came to clash with the U.

A tension existed from early on, in part the result of the various social backgrounds and political leanings of the parties involved in the publishing of La Ver- dad. The tone of the paper was also inluenced by various correspondents from different parts of Cuba and by poetry that was more patriotic than annexationist. Lazo 78 Under the direction of Miguel T. On the other hand, the annexationist position was best advo- cated in the New York paper by the journalist Jane McManus Storm Cazneu — , who appeared listed on its front page as the only editor of the bilingual publication until , when Cirilo Villaverde was put in charge of editing the Spanish-language section of the newspaper.

However, while some writers sustained that as a state of the Union the island could preserve its autonomy, others questioned this argument, and instead embraced the idea of a distinct Cuban republic, modeled after the American political system, but preserving its own culture and language. Annexation was an option for some, but not all agreed.

Others preferred an independent republic. However, the second issue underlying the separatist cause was the suppression of slavery, and again there was a lack of consensus around the issue. Some advocated for a gradual emancipation process, while others called for a proclamation of its immediate abolition.

Still others preferred to maintain a strict annexationist platform, leaving the anti-slavery cause to the side for the time being. Marrero La Verdad became the most inluential and longest-running American paper published by Cubans in New York between and Lazo It was a popular source of news on the island, where it was considered by the colonial government a subversive publication, and circulated through a clandestine network of Cuban distributors.

The main participants of this unoficial anti-slavery circle of Cuban intellectuals were Cirilo Villaverde, Miguel T. The main participants of the abolitionist undercurrent were also among the most active and distinguished leaders of the exiled Cubans living in the s in the United States.

The undercurrent anti-slavery group that was unoficially organized around La Verdad was also a circle of intimate friends. This circle of intellectuals shares common ideas against the system of slavery, and all of its members were active in the press as editors, writers, and frequent newspaper collaborators. At this New York center, members of the abolitionist undercurrent group, such as its founder Miguel T. As a result, they began to publish works by the most outstanding writers of the abolitionist circle of friends in the pages of La Verdad, includ- ing the best poems by the most outstanding authors.

The two main editors of the Spanish section of the bilingual newspaper were Cirilo Villaverde and Miguel T. Miguel T. The Athenaeum was established to provide an intellectual fo- rum as the basis for the independence struggle. In , he contributed to the abolitionist paper El Mulato with a copy of a speech he gave to commemorate the founding of the French republic.

In , he presented a plan to the Spanish colonial government to replace black slaves with a labor force composed of white emigrants. Cirilo Villaverde was an intellectual, an exiled writer, a journalist, and a political activist. For his involvement in the re- bellion, he was convicted and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. However, he managed to escape from the island in by boarding a ship to Florida, inally arriving in New York, where he remained until his death in La Verdad was distributed in the United States and smuggled into Cuba aboard ships going to the Spanish colony.

Regardless of its prohibition in the island colony, the highly inluential publication circulat- ed through a network of clandestine distribution and was widely read by the Cuban people as an important source of news Marrero Villaverde, like the ma- jority of the Creole intellectuals, admired American republicanism as the best political model and viewed the annexation of the island to the United States as an option for its political future.

In the United States, Villaverde was not only an active member of the separatist group of Cuban intellectuals and writers and a leader of the in- dependence movement, but also a devoted journalist. He was the founder, editor, and collaborator of a variety of American newspapers and magazines. Many slave suspects and creole intellectuals were accused of participating in the revolt, put to death, or punished for no apparent political reason.

Quite simply, women writers were almost absent form these publications. Her precursor novel reinvigorated the abolitionist sentiment among the Cuban people, and always played a key role in countering pro-slav- ery thought.

Also carried one hundred ifty ive immigrants of color, of whom sixty-two boarded in Baltimore, and the remaining nine- ty-three were from Georgia and Tennessee. In the context of La Verdad, the news concerning the emigration to Liberia offers a persuasive anti-slavery message, since black slaves must be liberated in order to emigrate to the African nation. The two brief news reports about Liberia refer to the colonization move- ment in the United States that began in with the establishment of the American Colonization Society ACS.

The institution was founded with the express purpose of sending blacks and people of color back to Africa. While the society initially concentrated on transporting free African Americans, it would later engage in buying the freedom of slaves and relocating them. The colonization enterprise received varied degrees of support. Some of their sup- porters were abolitionists who believed that the existence of an independent African nation would eventually encourage Southerners and slaveholders to release their slaves.

During the decade of , many abolitionists viewed the emigra- tion to Liberia of free blacks as a process of gradual emancipation with coloni- zation. They advocated a coming together of abolition and colonization plans to return freed slaves to established African homelands, such as Sierra Leone and Liberia Sinha Thus, emigration to Liberia appealed to many anti-slavery supporters as a means to pave the way for the total abolition of slavery. With the appearance in the bilingual paper of the two brief pieces about emigration to Liberia, Villaverde assumed an implied anti-slavery coloniza- tionist position.

For Villaverde and others, the colonization movement would eventually lead to the abolition of slavery, since black emigration to Liberia was a vehicle for granting freedom to the slaves and underlying the project of a modern black nation was the principle of black equality.

The concept of black nationhood and nationality proved that former slaves were capable of a civilized government and self-reliance, disputing the fallacy that blacks were naturally inferior to whites. Accordingly, they should not be enslaved. This opening statement on the principle of human equality alludes simultaneously to the oppression of Cubans under Spanish colonial rule and to the effects of slavery on the black population. La Avellaneda had no models to follow.

The anti-slavery narratives were the irst works to introduce blacks and mulattoes as protagonists in Cuban literature Luis 5. Both authors named their works of iction af- ter their respective male and female mulatto protagonists. His manuscript went through an extended composition process divided into writing stages: irst, a two-part short story that was published in La Siempre- viva, and, second, a preliminary version of the novel.

Both pieces appeared in According to the critic, the two earlier texts, the short story and the volume, were not anti-slavery works, since they both passed the censors and were published in Cuba in Luis 4. He returned to the island in under a political am- nesty granted by the Spanish government and remained there until when he departed again to the United States.

His last visit to Cuba was in and lasted only two weeks Luis The year that his friend arrived in Cuba, Villaverde was in the process of writing his anti-slav- ery novel. He was revising the text and outlining in detail a new plan for the work, but this attempt was interrupted when he had to leave the island to return to the United States.

I had outlined the new plan to its most minute details, when once again I had to abandon my country. Luis After many years without seeing each other, the two friends probably met in private to share memories, recall their past experiences, exchange ideas, and discuss the main topics of the day.

Del Monte had a considerable impact on the Creole writers and intellectuals that gathered at his house, where they formulated a counter discourse to Spanish colonial authority. During their meetings, the question of slavery was a preferred topic of discussion among the members of the salon, and the inluential literary critic advised the participants to adopt a more realistic type of literature to describe Cuban society, and to use it to portray the evils of its central institution Luis Del Monte also commissioned the intellectuals of his literary circle to write anti-slavery narratives that would denounce the cruelties of the slavery system, and to be on the side of the black slaves instead of their masters.

Anti-slavery writings could not be published in Cuba during the years of the Del Monte tertulia from to , since the works posed a threat to the alliance between the colonial government, the slaveholders, and the island sugarocracy. However, it was abandoned rapidly until it was revived in It maintained a permanent and sustained activity throughout the period. Yet, rather than on the margins of the move- ment, the precursor text appears at its very center by becoming the irst and the only abolitionist work of iction that was published in the decade of As a ground-breaking text against slavery that condemns the abuses of the system through her mulatto slave protagonist, the novel marked an important stage in the development of anti-slavery iction as a form of protest, signaling the beginning of a counter-discourse challenging the institution of slavery in the colonial society.

Furthermore, in the United States in , he married Emilia Casanova, a woman abolitionist and an advocate of Cuban independence. The piece emphasizes that the abolitionist novel emerged from within the Cuban socio-political context, where slavery was a fundamental institution 2. The anti-slavery undercurrent culminated with the irst oficial pronounce- ment on the abolition of the institution in Mary Cruz argues that Sab should be considered a long-range political tool, since it was reprinted in the New York newspaper at the outset of the war of indepen- dence Cruz The novel became a far-reaching ideological tool from the time of its pub- lication in to the inal abolition of slavery in Cuba in Sab was continuously present in the long struggle to bring about the end of slavery on the island by undermining the central institution of Cuban society.

When Sab was prohibited by the colonial authorities, the subversive and inluential work became a sort of abolitionist manifesto. In addition, the book was sold in Cuba and advertised in the press in , and again in , as well as appearing serialized in newspapers from Havana and New York. Many years later on January 28, , the same publi- cation advertised on its title page that another edition of the abolitionist nov- el was for sale in Cuba.

In this scenario, law and iction con- verged toward a common cause: to combat the evils of slavery and, at the same time, to create a favorable opinion toward its abolition. Previously, in Madrid with the Cuban delegates, in- cluding her friend Lorenzo de Allo, she asked for the introduction of reforms to the slavery system in Cuba.

The territory became the major destination for African slaves in the island. In his letter, the lieutenant governor provides a disturbing and detailed account of the cruelties of the in- stitution of slavery. The oficial document by Verdugo reveals the brutality of plantation slavery: the indiscriminate use of naked violence by the masters and overseers, and the overworking of the slaves.

This drove several slaves on those establishments to the brink of despair, electing to commit suicide by hanging themselves or hurling themselves into wells rather than submit to any further punishment. It also was reported to me that some had suc- cumbed to the ruthless blows dealt at the behest of the owner.

The indings, Excellency, are attached in the dreadful summary, below. Her writings reached a wider audience through the pub- licity she received in the North American press. To start, in the New York paper The Sun, two brief letters to the editor appeared in which one Boston reader inquired if there was a leading woman poet of the century.

Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda, a Cu- ban by birth, as a great poetess, and perhaps the greatest ever born in America, or in the whole world, for that matter? I see in your editorial page of to-day that Mr. New York, Jan. While the Boston Daily Advertiser concluded that no one can be com- pared to her in Hispanic Literature. Northeast to obtain support among the American public for the Cuban War.

He was a businessman who faced extradition upon his return to the island from the United States for having been the publisher of liberal newspapers. The author of the piece, Rene S. Parks, portrays her as a dramatist acclaimed by the public, since she attained unusual success as a woman playwright whose dramas tragedies and comedies alike were extremely popular with the audience.

As the newspaper states, the writer was highly praised by the critics who compared her with the Greek poets Sappho and Corinna, and to Melpomene the Muse of Tragedy for her unusual success as a female dra- matist. Her poetic gift found expression at an early age, her irst poem having been written on the death of her father when she was only six years old. At eight she wrote a fairy tale in verse; at nine her poems were attracting public comment; at eighteenth she had written a comedy and a tragedy.

Not an insigniicant record for a Cuban girl in the irst half of the century! When sixteen years old, Gertruda de Avellaneda was sent to Spain to complete her education. Returning to Cuba in a few years, she devoted herself to writing novels, poems and dramas.

In she went back to Madrid, where her fame had preceded her and procured her a welcome in the most exclusive circles. Her critics exhausted the capacity of the language in admiring epithets: Sap- pho, Corinna, the Spanish Melpomene, were some of the names applied to her. Born in Puerto Principe, Cuba, March 24, , she published her irst volume of poems when scarcely more than a child. Her genius. She died in Madrid, Feb. A memorial tablet was erected in in the wall of the house where she was born.

The geniuses of her lyric gift appear to be beyond all question. She was born in Puerto Principe in At the age of twenty she went to Spain, and soon became known in Seville, Cadiz and Madrid through her lyrics, dramas and novels. As proliic a writer as our Mrs. Burnett, she has published a dozen novels, several books of poems, biographies, and essays, and no less than nine successful dramas. Rosewater ar- rived in the United States from Bukoven, Bohemia with his family in Beautiful Cuba, thy brilliant sky Night covers black with her veil As veiled with my grief am I.

This girl, who bore the same family name as the famous Cuban general of today, died many years ago, but not before her delicate and exalted talents be- came known in Paris and in Madrid, where she lived for a number of years. She was always an ardent sympathizer with the struggles of Cuba for freedom. She was only twenty when she went to live in Madrid and it is on record that she was much sought after and admired for her charm and personality as well as for her literary talents.

As we explored previously, the composition she dedicated to this American hero of the War of Independence is an exam- ple of the public utility of her civic poetry. Does your Excellency understands us? Your Excellency already knows the country—where are any inhabitants more gentle or more sensible? Where a country more worthy of urbanity and honesty? Well then to your Excellency, Heaven entrusts that jewel—that in your hands it may receive new lustre—that there may become a more brilliant light in the Island so fully rich, and that learning and its spread may oblige it to take your name and virtues from the country of Wash- ington and Avellaneda to the place of Cortes and Cervantes.

This lady is the authoress of several very beautiful dramas and other poems of great merit. She has been twice married. However, what calls the attention of the reader is the next line informing how lucrative the on-going slave trade was in Cuba, which could be interpreted as a veiled reference to her banned anti-slavery novel Sab by the colonial authorities. The journalist observes regarding the opening night of the play: The new little theater, erected immediately in the rear of the Tacon, was opened on Sunday evening.

I shall visit it upon an early occasion. The African slave trade prospers amazingly. On May 22, , the New York Tribune gave notice to the public of a meeting of the group Soro- sis at the Waldorf-Astoria, where a lecture on Cuban literature was given in front of a large audience. All the great men of France and Spain did homage to her intellect, and her career was a succession of tri- umphs. Melvin Menges.

M Heredia. An evidence that American friendship is not forgotten is in the pretty little plaza named after Charles A. This is one of the thorough- fares whose name was not changed, for it was given during the Spanish regime. Frederick M. The periodical refers to the immediate triumph of the biblical play, which was staged on April 9, , at the Teatro de Novedades in Madrid.

The tragedy had an unprecedented run of almost ifty consecutive performanc- es with a sumptuous stage production combining the best in costume, music, and spectacle. The drama received newspaper reviews that consistently offered high praise for the author and her masterpiece.

A daily paper in Nebraska advertised the new edition on November 4, The school books received recently from the press of the American Book company include. While it is written in poetry that not infrequently reaches the sublime its language is simple and natural and therefore easy to understand. In addition, the turning of the biblical play into an opera did not pass without notice in the American press.

The premiere of the opera in was at the Real Theater in Madrid. It was irst heard in Madrid in In keeping with this tone, it also references the obstacles that she had to overcome to assert her artistic talent as a female writer in the Nineteenth Century.

The article states that both dramas were successful stage productions, hailed as triumphs and re- ceiving ovations from the audience. Finally, the piece focuses on the astounding success of Baltasar in the theater, where the play reached more than ifty performances. According to the article, the vain and egotistical tyrant is masterfully portrayed as a weary and cynical ruler, tired of the vanities of the world and overwhelmed by a tedium and a total lack of will. Her character and disposition is described by the author as a rare balance between feeling and thought that inds its utmost expression in a compassionate nature guided by an innate sense of justice.

Su cerebro un tribunal de justicia. Her heart is a motor for charity. Her mind a tribunal of justice. The redemptive act of poetry is to restitute the human to its divine source as an instant of poetic revelation, when the union of heaven and earth is perceived as a glimpse of eternity. In her abolitionist novel, the audience is exposed to the plight of the main character, and to his feelings and thoughts as a victim of the slavery system.

At the fair, each one of the twenty-three countries participating built its own pavilion in order to publicly display its major cultural accomplishments. The critic explains that the religious poems of her youth were based on the scriptures of the Bible, and that these texts are illed with splendid imagery and elevated theological concepts exposed with unusual reinement and rigor. In , she had a daughter out of wedlock with him.

He abandoned her after the baby was born, refusing to legally recognize their daughter. Everything is broken] as a composition in- spired by the failed love relationships. The newspaper piece makes a brief reference to her two deceased husbands, both well-known politi- cal igures: the irst, Don Pedro Sabater, Army Major and governor of Madrid, and the second, Colonel Domingo Verdugo, an inluential advisor to the King, and the person who accompanied the writer on her return trip to Cuba.

The author of the essay pays particular attention to her long-lasting love affair with Don Ignacio Cepeda y Alcalde, providing details on how the two lovers met in Seville, while he was a law student at the university. He concludes that be- hind the powerful mutual attraction of the lovers that drew them to each other, the driving force of their relationship was the precocity of their remarkable in- tellects 3a.

However, his preference remains with the Cuban writer over the Italian. Gerardo Del Valle ex- plains that her broad interdisciplinary knowledge was complemented with the talent of a literary genius, while her physical beauty was accompanied by a deep spirituality. However, there were also advertisements in the newspapers promoting anthologies of her poems, such as a list of recently received books that appeared on June 1, , in Nueva Democracia.

For example, the editor of the Omaha Daily Bee, Mr. In the American press, she was considered one of the major authors of Hispanic literature. The U. Civil War and had as its mission uniting the Cuban revolutionary movement with the movement to abolish slavery.

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