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British Pedigrees and their historical value 54 III. The Antonine Itinerary. The Legions in Britain. On Tacitus, Annals, xii. Words borrowed from Norse. The present is the inheritor of all the ages, and the whole past is summed up in the state of things of to-day. The language we speak, for instance, involves in it the record of the vicissitudes through which our race has passed throughout the ages.

The progress of our civilization is to be traced in the words we now use, the history of the interminglings of our ancestors in past ages is to be found in our present vocabulary, as well as in the physical peculiarities which distinguish us as a nation. But it is especially from the words which are employed as denominations of the towns, villages, and physical features of our country that we may glean a knowledge of our past.

All such words are, or were at one time, significant, and if we could determine their original form and meaning we should be able to recover some of the lost pages of our history. In the study of the origin and development of such words we are not left altogether to guess- work. The growth of language, the changes to which syllables, words, and combinations of words are subject in the process of time are not of an arbitrary character, but like everything in nature, the product of gradual evolution.

We may not be able to follow always the chain of continuity, and the laws of sound- change may be overridden sometimes by the play of analogy and other influences, but there are principles to guide us in our researches to sound conclusions on the whole see Note A.

A minute examination of these will show, however, that numerous elements involved in them are not to be traced to an English source. A further investigation of these " foreign " elements will enable us to class them roughly into Celtic, Latin, and Scandinavian. There is, if we take in the rest of Britain, probably also a number of them which belong to a pre-Celtic language ; that is to say, designations handed down from a race which was in possession of these islands when the first Celtic invaders entered them.

Some of our linguistic experts think that these pre-Celtic peoples were represented by the Picts, who appear to have occupied certain parts of Scotland and of Ireland when our first great English historian the Venerable Bede was writing his History, nearly twelve hundred years ago. In his time, Bede says, and the Saxon Chronicle adopts the statement, the following races, as represented by languages, were known in Britain : English, British, Scot-ish i.

Irish , Pictish, and Book-Latin i. The Celtic languages to which Bede here refers under the designations British, Scot-ish, and Pictish, have been scientifically classified of late according to their local survivals into Goidelic, which embraces Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic , and Brythonic which includes Ancient British and Gaulish , Cornish, Breton, Cymric i.

Welsh , and probably Pictish. The ancient Continental home of the Celtic-speaking people was, according to latest authorities, the territory lying between the Rhine, the Main, and the Danube, whence according to D'Arbois de Jubainville they spread into North- West Germany, the Goidelic branch about B. These were followed, the same writer alleges, about B.

According to Julius Caesar De Bell. Caesar tells us, moreover ibid. This is confirmed by the names Venta Belgarum Winchester and Calleva or Galleva Atrelatum Silchester , the Atrebates 1 occupying at this period the region round Arras in which their name is still preserved. As to the Belgae being the first Brythonic invaders of Britain, it is clearly against the statement of Caesar, and other- wise not credible.

A tribe called Scots belonging to the Goidels are known to have passed from Ireland into Alban Scotland in the fourth century of our era, the latter country being then occupied by Bry- thons and Picts. The influence of each of these Celtic peoples is still to be traced in our place-names. A few native territorial and Celtic tribe-names were familiar to the Romans before our era. Kent, with its white cliffs, was known to Julius Caesar in 54 B.

The 1 Ptolemy ii. See later on the Summary of Ptolemy's Geography of Albion. The early form of the latter is Berruc-scire, Bserruc-scire, Bearruc-scire in a charter ascribed tOA. We shall see, from instances given later on, that an internal "b" in a Latinized Celtic name was pro- nounced as "v" and that it tended to disappear altogether. Cenno-manni the tribe who gave their name to Le Mans is seemingly another form of the same word.

For the meaning of Iceni see p. The tribe Iceni seem to have given origin to the Icenhildeiveg which is mentioned in Cart. The hilde appears also in Bugg-ilde Stret now Buckle St. Rallt for YrAllf. The A. Feger-hildeford Cart. It has been conjectured that the tribe-name means "Worshippers of Segontios", a possible name of a "God of Victory". The name occurs in Segontium Ant. Siguenza in Spain is the Segontia of Strabo iii.

That given in Toller- Bosworth A. The fact also that at least two names in this county have come down to us with little alteration from Roman times, tends to confirm the view here taken. The tribe-name Bibroci was traced by Dr. Thus the Belgian A[d]trebates furnish still, as we have said, 1 In words borrowed from the Latin by the English before A.

Spinney in Cambridgeshire : see also Brit. Beaver occurs in other early place-names. Kluge, Et. Worterbuch, says the Latin Biber is of German origin. It is more probably Celtic, with which the Latin is more closely connected.

The Latin has also the normal Fiber. It is not, therefore, improbable that some of the designations of Celtic tribes in Britain still survive much dis- guised perhaps in certain place-names. It has long been maintained that the name of the Iceni possibly contained in the CV zmagni of Julius Caesar is involved in the Icknield Way. In an original charter in the British Museum of A.

It is significant that this charter contains the name " Cynebellinga-gemsere ", or boundary of the descendants or tribe, as Dr. Birch, late of the British Museum, suggested, of Cunobellinus, the British king, who according to tradition was buried at Great Kimble. Rolls, ii. Bede H. He was a priest and monk, and had been educated at Lindisfarne. It is possible that before Lastingham was assigned to him, he ruled some monastery in the South, and that the familia there were called quite naturally Cynebillinga.

At any rate we have here a form of name which falls in more satisfactorily than Cunobellin-us with Cynebellingagemcere. He died about A. His head quarters were at Camulo- dunum Colchester. Cunobellinus occurs, together spmetimes with the name Camulodunum, on his coins, of which many have been found in the region assigned to the Iceni e.

Geoffrey of Monmouth twelfth century furnishes the fanciful material about Cynebelinus which Shakespeare afterwards worked up into his play of Cymbeline. The Charter furnishing us with this possible reference to Cunobellinos, if we may trust Dr.

Birch, may be a flash of light in the darkness. The assumption that there was no continuity of history from British and Roman to Saxon times is rash. The scantiness of our records may make it difficult to bridge the chasms, but surviving place-names may often serve this purpose : see Note F.

The place- and tribe-names of Britain given in Julius Caesar's Gallic War are the earliest Celtic designations furnished to us by history. NOTE A. A short summary of the modern methods employed in lin- guistic research will at one and the same time illustrate the statement in the text and show the truly scientific character of comparative philology. Schlegel, profiting by the researches of Sir William Jones, published in his celebrated work on the lan- guage and wisdom of the ancient people of India.

Lewelidd, now Carlisle. Brugmann's Grundriss, p. Schlegel snowed that this language stood in close relationship with ancient Persian, with Classical Greek and Latin, and also with the Teutonic family of languages. This relationship was founded not only on their possessing a large number of common root-words, but also on the intimate structure and grammar of these languages. Later on Slavonic, Celtic, Armenian, and Albanian, were found to belong to the same family and the whole came to be called the Indo-Germanic, Indo-European or Aryan group of languages.

As a human family is so called because it proceeds from a common parent, so these related languages were regarded as proceeding from one original speech. The proof is furnished by a comparison of words in these different languages that have a similarity of form and a like significance.

Brugmann Kurze Grammatik, published shows how from comparison of forms of the same structure and meaning in these languages the original form accounting for all the variations may be reached. The genitive had two forms, depending on whether the nominative ended in a consonant or a vowel. The foregoing forms are marked with an asterisk to show that they do not actually occur but are more or less necessary grammatical abstractions.

The examination of these and of similar forms shows that each contains an element, which may be called the root, and another constituting a formative suffix. Roots may be divided into two classes, i Verbal from which verbs, nouns, adverbs and some prepositions are derived , and 2 Pronominal or Demonstrative, out of which arose probably the case endings of nouns and the inflexions of verbs. The long a of the first syllable is, as we see, preserved in all the instances except Old High German, in which it gives uo, arising from an earlier o Brugmann, Grundriss, The fate of the second vowel and of the consonants may also be inferred, but the stages of evolution in each language can be determined only from a study of the sound-changes operative in that language.

As our researches are chiefly directed to the Celtic and Teutonic elements in British place-names the following bare outline of sound-changes is confined to these languages. A comparison of the members of the Indo-European family leads to the assumption of the following system represented as far as possible in our alphabet as that of the parent speech. The vowels a, o, u, e, t, existed in their long and short forms ; v w, v and i j,y] had a consonantal function and formed diphthongs with long or short a, o, e.

The explosives are thus classified. K g Kh gh Palatals. See Brugmann's Grundriss, i. Gram, derkell. Pedersen ibid. The distinction in the first place between long and short vowels is maintained. The short and long diphthongs are no longer distinguished. The diphthongs are in part resolved into simple vowels out of which later new diphthongs are formed. The velars and palatals have ceased to be distinguished.

The tenues had fallen in with the aspirated tenues completely at an early date. The mediae likewise had coincided with the aspirated mediae, but traces of a special articulation of the aspi- rated mediae were still to be detected, w v , s, the explosives and the consonantal liquids were represented in Celtic in a double manner, that is, besides the normal pronunciation in the beginning of a word, there was a relaxed languid utterance with wider opening of the mouth , which occurred, among other instances, between vowels.

This modification of utterance is called Lenition or aspiration. Pedersen traces, in vol. Short e is also preserved, but can become by umlaut y. Middle Irish Glend, gen. Compare Vindo-gladia Ant. Welsh mynydd mountain and old Breton, -montd, Cornish meneth, the latter with umlaut. Pedersen proceeds to show the fortunes of all the vowels, together with those of the consonants, in the various branches of Celtic speech.

A few illustrations, however, of the changes to which the Indo- European vowels and other sounds were subjected in the Teutonic languages may well find a place here see Brugmann's Grundriss, 35 et seq. Then followed the general shift of the tenues, except when preceded immediately by s t or when they came under " Verner's Law ".

Sufficient instances of Teutonic sound- changes have been given here to show the principles. Further examples will be cited as each case discussed requires. For the progress of the Roman arms in Britain from A. He had exceptional opportunities for acquiring information, as his father-in-law was the famous Roman general Agricola, who reduced almost the whole of Britain to the Roman obedience.

The army sent into Britain by the Emperor Claudius in A. The Emperor Claudius, who spent alto- gether only some sixteen days in Britain, was present at the capture. In the campaign of this period, the future Emperors Vespasian and Titus father and son took part, the latter some twenty -five years later A. In the year A. Can we find any traces of these events in surviving place- names?

Camulodun-um Tacitus, Annals, and Ant. Coln-chester, but was supplanted by the term Colonia, a dignity conferred upon it later on. It means the dun or stronghold under the pro- tection of the god Camul-os see Holder's Sprachschatz, s. As the m in Camul did not become aspirated between vowels in British speech, the first syllable must have been originally Camb see Pedersen, V.

It would seem, therefore, to have nothing to do with the Nudd of Tennyson's " Idylls" or with " Ludd of the silver hand ". Torp Wortschatz, p. Glennie, in his Arthurian Localities E. Text Soc. Was it this Camulodun, or some other place of the same shortened name, to which reference is made in Tennyson's lines? Arthur holding there his Court Hard on the river, nigh the place which now Is this world's hugest, let proclaim a joust At Camelot. Albans, writes, " There is still visible, beside the Watling Street way, another original Roman road through the forests of Enfield Chace, called at this day Camlet way, which seems to have been the road from Verulam to Camalodunum.

There is another river in Somerset involving " Camel". This place is mentioned in a charter ascribed to the year Cart. The river runs into the Avon above Bath. The element " Camul" is also involved in the ancient form of Chamblay Camul-oscus, Camblosco , of which name there are several instances, in France. Michael's Church in Verulam, yet it is difficult to believe that it and its direction were an invention of Newcome's, who evidently saw no con- nexion between its name and the " Camulod " of Camulo- dunum, of which it would be a possible survival.

The account in the Annals of Tacitus of the design of Ostorius to occupy with camps the whole country to [or between] the Avon and Severn has created difficulties. The manuscript authorities for the Annals give two readings here for the former river. In one it is called the Antona, and in the other the Avon. The seeming impossibility of identifying either of these names with any existing river in this region has led to several conjectures.

Henry Bradley proposed Academy, April 28, a most ingenious reading of the passage previously? Sir John Rhys is prepared to accept this conjecture, and thinks that this may be the early form of the Tre h anta, Trenta, now the Trent; but see p. The geographer Ptolemy, who about A. The form Trahannon occurs, it is true, in Nennius ninth century , but it seems to refer to the Trisantona of Ptolemy. Ostorius had in his advance the Iceni on his front and right.

He wanted a river of some importance to protect his right flank in his advance. The Trent seems too far north, but the Nene might have served his purpose. Previous inves- tigators had accepted, without etymological considerations, this river as the Avon of Tacitus. This river, for a certain part of its course at least, has been known, from the middle of the tenth century at latest, as the Nyn or Nen.

Leland, in his Itinerary, written about , calls it, over and over again, the Avon. He says in one passage : " The ryver of Avon so windeth about Oundale Town that it almost insula- tethe it, savyng a litle by west-north-west. Dsel neut. Dsel was, like its Scandinavian equivalent dal-r in the north of England, generally coupled with river- names, e. Oundle would there- fore be a worn form of Avon-dsel, and thus at once confirm Leland's name of the river, and the accuracy of the text of Tacitus which reads Avonam.

In Speed's Theatrum Britanniae , moreover, Avon-well is given as in Rothwell Hundred, and is doubtless the well or source of the stream that, running by Kettering, falls into the Nene. Drayton in his Polyolbion says of the Nen: " Avon, which of long, the Britons called her," " whom by Aufona's name the Roman did renown. Henry Bradley thinks that ' ' Avon " was a generic term applied to British rivers, and that there was in all cases a specific name added to it.

The Avon-Nyn would, therefore, be a transitional form, leaving either " Avon" or " Nyn", as one or other form fell out in the course of time. Bradley's view. It would be difficult to say when the Britons began to use H for an initial S. The parallel between the Greek initial aspirate and the Latin S tends to show that the change must have been very ancient.

It has been conjectured, with some degree of probability, that this name is perpetuated in the Deanery of Tegingel now Holy well, and in the Taxatio, " Englefild ". The Deaneries often involve in their designations very ancient district names. Towel's Hist, of Cambria, published in , says p. Ostorius had, therefore, probably proceeded to, and beyond, the Dee, to what is now Chester, as a funerary inscription found in the walls there shows, according to Dr.

The pigs of lead found there with emperors' names on them are associated with silver coins, of which two are British and two are Republican. The silver of the British coins was probably procured from the lead ore. The Roman General Ostorius, Tacitus tells us, was recalled from his Western campaign by the outbreak of disorders among the Brigantes. He had not mentioned these people before, but his language implies a previous contact between them and the Roman troops.

Indeed, their name was seemingly well known in Rome at an early date, for there is a passing reference to them in lines of Seneca Apocol. Tacitus seems to indicate that the outbreak of disorders among the Brigantes was a concern to Ostorius, because he had previously established some kind of order among them.

He was not long, moreover, in bringing them into subjection again. Could these, we might naturally ask, be the Brigantes of the north, or were they some tribe of a similar designation nearer the centre of Roman dominion at this time? The name, in an original charter of A. Wallingford, Britford, and on the Continent, Frankfort.

Ptolemy A. From the fact that the early form " Brigunt " has passed into the " Brent " of Brentford, one might expect that a modern survival of the ancient tribe-name "Brigantes" would exhibit a similar modification. We find in an early charter Cart. In attempting an explanation of the origin of tribe-names it is well to keep in mind two things : i that the forms of such names come to us generally through a neighbouring people, and not from the tribes themselves. Thus, the name " Welsh " Wealas , which means simply " foreigners ", comes to us not from the people so designated, but from the English, who were their neighbours.

The Welsh call themselves " Cymry ". Gaul and Gauls were applied to the country and people of the land now called France, by Celtic tribes on the borders with whom "Galli" would mean simply like the English word "Welsh" foreigners; and the name German is also, according to Grimm, a Celtic designation, and is not used in their vernacular speech by any Teutonic people on the Continent in speaking of themselves.

Thus the Saxons were so called from the " seax " or sword they used in warfare. The Franks were thus de- signated from the javelin they carried, which was called " franca " by the Anglo-Saxons, and not from a boast of their being a frank or " free " people. The Longobards after whom Lombardy is called took in the same manner their name from their long " bards " or spears, and not from their beards.

In a similar manner the nature of the locality, or mode of dwelling, of a tribe furnished to their neighbours an obvious name for them. Thus the Burgundiones, who invaded in the early fifth century that part of Gaul which is now called Burgundy, were so called because they dwelt in a hilly country. The Brigantes mentioned by Tacitus derive their name naturally, therefore, from the hills, or rather hill-forts, wherein they dwelt. This is confirmed somewhat by Juvenal's reference to them Sat.

Gall chnu in Gaelic, like its cognate form in English wal-nut , means " foreign nut". To return to " Bernicia'' the alleged later form of the tribe of the Brigantes Bede speaks of the people as Bernicii, and assigns them a place in the present region of Northumberland. The boundaries of the Anglian kingdom thus designated are given in the twelfth-century Life of Oswald, and embrace the country between the Tyne and the Firth of Forth Deira 1 , another Anglican kingdom, occupying the region between the Tyne and the Humber.

Richard, Prior of Hexham, writing about , makes the Tees the southern boundary of Ber- nicia, and the Tweed its northern limit. There is apparently no surviving place-name in all this region preserving the designation Bernicia.

If such a form does exist, it is too much obscured to be easily recognized. I have gone carefully through the charters of the Monastic houses in these districts, but can find nothing at all representative of Bernicia. Such forms as Branx-holm or Brance-path, which might suggest a survival, are to be otherwise explained. The numerous Birrens Camps or Burrins Camps, on the Scotch border, are to be interpreted by a passage, p.

This word may be of Celtic origin, for Adamnan's Life of Columba, p. But see note, p. The name Deira is seemingly preserved in the Deorstrete, Dere-street, of Sim. Dtmelm, 70, and of the Melrose Charters. It was Watling Street north of the Wall. Tacitus describes the Silures as having swarthy complexions using the same colour adjective as Virgil applies to the Indians and curly hair. He is inclined to think, for this reason and because they lie over against Spain, that they came from the latter country and were an Iberic people.

This tribe occupied the region to the west of the lower Severn and to the north of the Bristol Channel. David's Head as far, at least, as Carmarthen Maridunum , which he makes one of the strong- holds of the latter. Ptolemy gives Bullaeum as one of the towns of the Silures, and this place has been identified by some with the Burrium cf.

Din-birrion of the Book of Llan Dav] of the Antonine Itinerary, which, according to the distances there given, would be near Usk, but no distinctively Roman remains, nor a Roman road, have been found here, as far as I know. This is a place of some strategical importance, and may represent Ptolemy's Bullaum. It is celebrated as the spot where the Prince Llewellyn, the last native ruler of Wales, met his death at the hands of the English in A.

It would appear, therefore, that the region occupied by the Silures was roughly co-extensive with the ancient Diocese of Llandaff, and included Monmouth and Glamorgan, besides parts of Herefordshire and Brecknock. The Silures placed themselves under the command of Cara- tacus, who had won, among the Britons, a high reputation as a general.

He succeeded, by drawing the Roman legions after him, in involving the latter in war with the Ordovices, who were a British tribe occupying the country to the north and west of the Silures. Caratacus having taken refuge with Cartismandua, the Queen of the Brigantes, was handed over by her, bound in fetters, to the victors, and was sent to Rome to grace the triumph of the conqueror.

Ostorius had not, however, done with the Silures, who fell upon certain cohorts engaged in constructing camps in Silurian territory, and succeeded in killing many, including the prefect of the camp, and putting the rest to flight. Their attacks were such, indeed, that Ostorius, worn out by the arduous and anxious character of the campaign, at length succumbed, and died about the year A.

Ostorius was succeeded by Aulus Didius, of whom the chief exploit recorded is his saving Cartismandua, the Queen of the Brigantes, from the attacks of her husband, Venutius, a native, Tacitus tells us, of the State of the Jugantes l.

Veranius, who succeeded Didius A. Suetonius Paulinus, who was sent by Nero to succeed Veranius, led the Roman legions to the Menai Straits, and, cross- ing to Mona Anglesea in flat-bottomed boats, reduced the island to subjection. Mona was the chief seat of Druidism, and Tacitus describes the Druids as pouring forth, from among the hosts drawn up on the shore to oppose the Romans, dire imprecations upon the latter.

Camden, on the ground that no such people as the Jugantes were known and that the "State of the Brigantes" appeared elsewhere in Tacitus Agruola , substituted Brigantes here, and he has been followed by all subsequent editors.

This is a dangerous method and tends to stop further research. We have several instances Anscombe's Welsh Genealogies in Archivfiir Celtische Philologie] ofjtt or Giu being read by transcribers as Evi, but no transition from Bri to Evi, and we may therefore assume that Jugantes or Evigantes is the right reading. If Venutius had been, like Cartismandua, one of the Brigantes, there would have been no need to specify the fact. This brings us down to the year 60 of our era.

Have we any memorials of these events, we may ask, in the existing topographical nomenclature of the country? Solinus, writing about A. Sir John Rhys thinks that the name of this island is of the same origin as that of the Silures, whether Solinus meant by it the Scilly Isles, or the region on the north of the Bristol Channel. The quantity of the " u " in Silures is doubtful. If the vowel were short it would facilitate the contraction of the word, and Sir John Rhys' s conjecture that the name of the chief man connected with the temple of Nodons discovered at Lydney Park in the region of the Silures Silulanus involves a term which may be equated with Silur, seems very probable.

The name appears also in iheAnfonine Itinerary in conjunction with " Venta ", i. Venta Silurum, now Caer Went in Mon- mouthshire, and in an inscription found here lately. The word "Venta", like the term "Silures", is somewhat obscure. The note on the next page is an attempt to explain it.

The island Silura, mentioned by Solinus, is probably the same as Susura, an island in the British seas, found in the list of the Ravenna Geographer. No explanation of the meaning of the term " Silures" has yet been offered. It does not seem even to be a Celtic word, and the probability of its survival in any modern form is remote.

Jornandes, who wrote about A. Perhaps he confused the name with that of the Silura referred to by Solinus, possibly now a little island off the coast of Glamorgan, called in Speed's map A. Sully Castle and the parish of Sully on the adjoining mainland would seem to indi- cate that the name covered a region sufficiently large to form a designation for a tribe.

The origin and meaning of this name are, however, not clear, and I know of no earlier form than that preserved in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas late thirteenth century " Sulleye ". He places them in what was later called Powys, a region which interposed between North and South Wales, both at this time inhabited by a Goidelic people.

The name sur- vives, he thinks, in Rhyd Orddvvy or the "ford of the Ordovi" , near Rhyl, and in Din-orwig formerly Dinorddwig , in the neighbourhood of Carnarvon, meaning the fortress of the Ordovices. NOTE B. It is evident from the forms of these names that they were imposed, and intended to be understood, by a Latin-speaking and not by a Celtic-speaking people. Putting aside place-names in regions occupied by the Romans, the word " Venta " does not occur in Celtic literature, either in the form " Venta ", or in its equivalents " Guent " or " Went ".

There is, moreover, no Goidelic equivalent with any topographical meaning. The word " Ventum " or " Venta ", however, occurs in place-designations in Romanized regions on the Continent. In Spain we have "Et oppidum nobilissimum Beneventum" L. There are also in Spain and Portugal several places of this name, e.

The Abbey of Benevent Creuse is a French survival of the name and the word also occurs in Germany, e. Ducange confirms this import of the word in a passage where, sub voce " Venta ", it is said that it means " a place where goods are exposed for sale, or where tribute is received from things sold ", and a quotation is given from the obituary notices of the Church of Langres France , "John de St.

The word "Beneventum" meant probably u a good market place", for in the Ravenna Geographer p. The name occurs on a bronze coin as an abl. Benuentod in Samnite, which was subject to Oscan influence, accord- ing to Conway, Italic Dialects , i. Keller, Lai. It was Malovent, moreover, before it was colonized by the Romans. Pliny, iii. In the Life of St. Cadoc Cambro-British Saints, Rees, pp. Carfan, the later Welsh form of Corbagni genitive to " Beneventana Civi- tas ", where he was made bishop ; but as no bishop of Bene- ventum of that name is to be found in Ughello's Italia Sacra, the place must be sought elsewhere.

It seems clear that Bene- ventum was not far from Llancarvan, for, in the same Life, it is said that St. Elli, Cadoc's successor at the latter place, " was accustomed to go very often with his disciples to the City of Beneventum," a practicable thing if the locality were in Britain, but not so if it were in Italy.

One is tempted to think of the " Bannaventa " given in MSS. A and F as Bennavento of the Antonine Itinerary which has been identified by some with " Daventry ", but there were possibly more places than one of this name in Britain : cf. The " Venta " of the Silures, however, may have been meant, or rather, that of the Belgae. From the foregoing it seems clear that the " Venta " of the tribes named was the locality where they sold and bought what they needed or where they paid tribute.

They found, however, that they were treated by the Roman centurions as a conquered people. The queen and her daughters were subjected to all manner of indignities, and the people were exposed to robbery and oppression on every hand. Owing to this state of things and the fear of worse the Iceni took up arms. They were joined by the Trinovantes and other tribes who had not yet had their spirit broken by servitude, and who were actuated by bitter hatred of the veterans recently planted as colonists at Camulodunum Colchester.

The latter had been driving the natives from their lands and treating them as captives or slaves. Paulinus Suetonius, who had succeeded to the command of the Roman troops in Britain, was away at this time on an expedition to some other part of the country. Camulodunum, which had not been fortified, was taken by the allied British tribes, and the temple therein erected under the Emperor Claudius , to which the Romans retired as to their citadel, was carried by storm. Suetonius hastened to the rescue of the colony and was able to make his way to Londinium London , which, although it had not been raised to the dignity of a colony, was then celebrated as the greatest mercantile centre in the island.

Suetonius, finding that with his comparatively small body of troops he could not defend the place, left it to its fate notwithstanding the prayers and tears of the inhabitants judging it preferable to lose one city rather than endanger the whole region occupied by the Romans. Accompanied by the able-bodied men of the place he hastened to take up a position in which he could defend himself. The Municipium of Veru- lamium close to St. Albans, where there are extensive Roman ruins, and where, according to tradition, St.

Alban was martyred in A. Both London and Verula- mium were captured by the Britons, and, as Tacitus tells us, some 70, Romans and their allies were slain. The generalship of the Roman leader and the strategical position he had chosen enabled the Romans to win a decisive victory, in which fell some 80, Britons. Boudicca, who with her daughters, had passed in her chariot from tribe to tribe to fire them with her wrongs, could not endure defeat, and put an end to her existence by poison.

The generalship of Suetonius was not, however, fully appreciated at Rome, and he was ordered by the Emperor Nero to hand over his command to Petronius Turpilianus A. Of the tribe named Trinovantes we seem to have no survival in our topographical nomenclature.

Their capital was, as we have seen, Camulodunum Colchester , and the area occupied by them embraced all Essex and Hertfordshire. The name itself seems to involve the numeral Tri- three , whatever " novantes " cf.

Ptolemy's Novantoi may mean. A similar use of this numeral appears in the names of ancient tribes of Gaul, e. There has been evidently a continuity of civil life here since Roman times, and this fact furnishes a comment on the theory that in Britain the Roman centres, which preserve relics of their ancient names to our own day, were not continuously occupied. Is there a modern representative of the name Verulamium? Here, see Stokes Wortschatz d. We cannot, for instance, predict from purely philological grounds the form a place-name will assume in passing into use among people speaking an alien language.

The law of attrac- tion, by which the unfamiliar place-name is drawn into the orbit of the familiar, has produced some strange metamorphoses in our nomenclature beyond explanation by linguistic laws. It began to exercise its influence in Britain at the very beginning of the Teutonic invasion. Regulbium could not long be preserved by Teutonic lips in this uncouth form, and soon found an intelligible equivalent in civitas Recuulf, also Racuulfe Bede , and Raculf-cestre [also Raculfs Cestre], which finally became the modern form Reculver or " the Reculvers ", as we find it in the seventeenth century, from the two towers of its Church serving as landmarks to fishing vessels.

Ritupia also was made to have some kind of meaning by taking on Bede's form Repta caester, which finally degenerated, through the Rates-burgh of Leland's Itinerary vii. But these changes are nothing to the modifications which the ancient name of Rochester suffered.

The form by which this place was recorded in the Roman Itinerary was Duro-brivis, which means " the Stronghold at the Bridges ". Henry Bradley would regard Ebordcum as representing a Celtic accusative Eburacon. Sir John Rhys sees in it a word cognate with our " door" and with the " for " in the Latin Fores and Forum. In some unaccountable way the name came to be made in Kentish lips Hrofibrevi In civitate Hrofi- brevi, in a charter ascribed to A.

The next step was to reduce it to Hrofi, as " in civitate Hrofi '' charter ascribed to A. If Duro-bernia Duro-vernum , the ancient name of Canter- bury, had not been supplanted at an early date by Cantwara- burg, meaning " the stronghold of the men of Kent ", it bade fair to become as much disguised in its modern form as Duro- brivis.

In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under A. I add one more instance, which serves not only to illustrate the principle of attraction of the known for the unknown, but also shows how the Desire for intelligibility led to the creation of purely imaginary designations for rivers and other natural features.

After these preliminary illustrations of the fate on the lips of the Teutonic invaders of early Celto-Roman place-names, let us turn to Verulamium. EccL I. These names were regarded then, there- fore, as equivalent. The former is the source whence the name hr or finally r. The modern English form rick, in hay-rick, is the same word. The Irish equivalent, entering into many place-names, is Cruach.

The British word appears in Welsh place-names, e. We have, for instance, in a charter ascribed to A. This is Creech Michael, Somerset, where there are several other places of this designation. The charter, although not of the date ascribed to it, preserves early forms. It occurred also in Roman times on the Continent, e. The ium of Pennocrticium is a Latin termination of a quasi-adjectival character. Englands, p. In Chauncey's Hist, of Herts we have several similar forms of this river-name.

The first element is equated by Dr. Why, we may well ask, should there be two designations, both involving the Roman Castra, for one place? Have we not here an instance of which Pogatscher Lautlehre gives us many of a learned and a vulgar survival of a common original? Werlame-ceaster is the form preserved by the bookmen. The vulgar, trusting to their only available source, the sound, made it Wsetlinga ceaster. Is it possible that, owing to the principle of attraction, the unintelligible Wer lam was gradually brought by the unlearned folk into the intelligible Wcetling or Weeding?

It would seem so. The combination of a British " r " and " 1 " must have presented then, as it does now, an unusual difficulty to Teutonic lips. Buell and Builth given above , and afterwards by " 11 ". But this form was combined with Caster, and the lam, as an unaccented syllable, would be ready to take on the familiar unaccented ending, -ing, as in Abmgdon, which, as is well known, was originally Abbandun.

Watting, or Wcetlinga, a customary genitive plural, had a possible meaning for English people and was sufficiently near to this assumed Werthlam or Werthling to be suggested by it. A Continental instance of a similar attraction from the unin- telligible to the intelligible is furnished in the Vituduro of the Ant. Something more is involved in this question than the English form of Verulamium.

Waetlingacaester was a Municipium in Roman times and evidently a great executive centre. The road from Canterbury ran to it originally by what is now Westminster, without passing through London. Plummer assumes Bede, ii. The road beyond it to the north took on the same name in later developments.

In a Charter of A. Wallingstreet at Wellington Shrop. The variant " Waecling " in the MSS. This suggestion as to the origin of Wcetling Street or Wailing Street is, in the absence of any other satisfactory solution, worthy of serious consideration. It probably ran from thence to Verulamium. Acemannesceaster occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under A.

Its Latin form is given in a Charter ascribed to A. Mann in Welsh locus Davies, Diet. It is also in keeping with the name of the road Drutingstraet in the Kent Charter, if the conjecture about it be correct. Suetonius was recalled by the Emperor Nero from the supreme command in Britain in the year A. Paul was an obscure prisoner at Rome at this time, and no one then anticipated that the cause with which he was identified would one day hold sway over a wider realm than that of the Emperor Nero, under whom the apostle was put to death some five years later.

Even then Britain was being prepared for the Gospel seed which already was being sown everywhere by Christian soldiers in Rome's ubiquitous legions. As commander of one of these legions "the twentieth" Julius Agricola entered Britain in A. He doubtless assisted in the campaigns undertaken against the Brigantes at this time, and had probably a hand in the attempted reduction of the Silures ; but nothing of note was effected until he was appointed to the supreme command in Britain in the summer of A.

From that date until his recall in A. His son- in-law, Tacitus, was, as has been previously pointed out, the historian of his campaigns. Hitherto warfare had been restricted to the favourable seasons of the year, but Agricola waited not upon either time or opportunity and began in the winter months an attack upon the Ordovices, who had again become trouble- some. Reducing them to obedience, he marched forward to recover the island of Mona Anglesea , which had been relin- quished when Paulinus had been recalled by Queen Boudicca's rebellion.

The ubiquitous activity of the Roman General left the natives neither time nor opportunity to make concerted attacks, and his wise selection of sites for his camps enabled him to overawe the tribes on every side. Many of them sub- mitted and allowed camps and garrisons to be established in their midst. This was an opportunity, of which Agricola quickly availed himself, for introducing amongst the British tribes Roman manners and customs, which, as he knew, would make for peace and settled government.

He urged and encouraged the natives to build temples and construct houses and market- places. And already the sons of native chiefs began to devote themselves to the liberal arts. By extolling the natural ability of the people beyond that of the Gauls, Agricola induced those who were shrinking from the use of the Latin speech not only to apply themselves to its acquirement, but to strive after eloquence in the use of it.

Thereupon, Tacitus adds Agricola , came the adoption of the Roman costume, and, with the not unfrequent Roman toga, a yielding to the blandishments of a vicious life, with its baths, its public concourse, and the elegancies of human converse in a word, with that which is called humanity by superficial observers, but which is in reality an element in servitude. This policy, justified by its results, was no doubt persisted in, and Southern Britain, at least, must have become at an early period as settled as the adjacent Roman possessions in Gaul.

The Legions are henceforward to be found mainly in the north and the west, that is, on the borderland of wild and turbulent tribes yet untouched by Roman civilization. In the south there had arisen many populous towns, and the great roads which began to traverse the island in every direction brought them into close relation with each other, and, after the passage of the Channel, with a similar network on the Continent, all converging towards Rome, the Seat of Empire.

In the second year of his command A. The ninth legion, which was in Lincoln before 75 Haverfield, Line. In five further campaigns during the ensuing six years before his recall A. The fourth year was consumed in securing the territories through which he had passed. The narrow space of land between the Firths of Clyde and Forth Clota et Bodotria, the Boderia, with a variant Bogderia, of Ptolemy he fortified with forts, so that the enemy should be, as it were, removed into another island.

In Agricola' s fifth campaign he reached the western coast of Scotland facing Ireland, a country which he had hopes of eventually conquering, and with this aim had received under his protection one of the kinglets of the country who had been exiled on account of some home trouble. The last campaign of Agricola in Britain was directed against the people inhabiting Caledonia that is, the region north of the Forth , who had almost cut to pieces the ninth legion, but upon whom he now inflicted a severe defeat at the Graupian Mount, slaying some ten thousand of them with the loss of only three hundred and sixty of his own troops.

As the summer was far spent, Agricola retired into the territory of the Boresti, where he received hostages from the enemy. Here he ordered his fleet to circumnavigate the island, while he himself led his troops by slow marches, in order to make a deeper impression on the enemy, into winter quarters.

The Emperor Domitian, becoming now jealous of Agricola's successes, and fearful of their consequences, recalled him from the island. The topographical names involved in this part of the record of the Conquest of Britain are few in number, and some seem to have left no survivals.

The Tay still perpetuates the name of the estuary ad Taum which Agricola reached in his third campaign. The name seems at this time to have been restricted to the tidal waters, and to have been extended afterwards to the river, which flows through Perthshire. This was a Pictish region at this time, and the interpretation must be sought in that language.

Skene Four Anc. Books of Wales] states that the Cymri called this river the " Tawi ". The best MS. Ptolemy's form is Tava. The firth of " Clyde " repre- sents the Cloia, and the " Forth " may be the lineal descendant of the Bodotria of Tacitus, although, as the transition stages are lacking, the guess is hazardous. In Bodotria the initial " B " was doubtless, as in similar latinized words, pronounced as "V", and would thus make the transition to " Forth" more natural.

Caledonia is a somewhat mysterious word, and Sir John Rhys thinks that " the Celtic etymologies usually proposed for it will not bear examination " Cell. Although Ptolemy and the Latin poets make the " e " in it long, Sir John Rhys says there is no ground for this in any of the extant Celtic forms of the name. The modern representative of the genitive of Caledo, shown in the second syllable of Dun-keld earlier Dun- chailden: see p.

Sir John Rhys would make " Caledonia " a designation derived from the national name " Caledo ", which was found a few years ago on a bronze tablet at Colchester. Professor Windisch, however, is inclined to accept the connexion. The prevalence in Britain of place-names containing more modern forms of this Caldet, meaning forest or grove, is in favour of this connexion.

In the annals of Ulster under A. Skene identifies Calat-ria and Calat-ros, and finds the common form represented in the Cymric Galt-reath, other- wise Catraeth Four Ant. Books of Wales. Here begins a difficulty. The Welsh Gallt is given as the equivalent of Alt of which the plural form, Gelltydd or Elltydd, are probably represented in Bagillt and Counsylht, now Coleshill, Flint , a height, and is used to designate " Cliff" cf.

Stokes traces Wortschatz these back to Kaldat, of which the Norse and English Holt is a cognate form. Galtres, then it was in Bede's Loidis and not in Scotland. As far as origin or meaning goes the Welsh Gallt cannot thus be connected with Caldet. Caled is, however, possibly the first element in Calleva i.

Calat and Caled may, therefore, be different forms with the same meaning. The " Boresti " seems to Sir John Rhys to contain a Brythonic form of the low Latin Foresta Forest, but as the initial was doubtless pronounced "V", we may have here possibly the early form of the place called Forays in A. This is, at any rate, somewhere in the neighbourhood of where Agricola was campaigning. It would be, then, from this point that the fleet was ordered to circumnavigate the island.

Where the Trucculensis Portus was is a matter of conjecture. Sir John Rhys thinks that the Taizaloi of Ptolemy and the Truccul in this word had a common origin, and that the site of this was somewhere near Peterhead. But is there any need that the Trucculensis Portus should be in Scotland at all? It might be miles away " whence [unde] the whole fleet returned coasting along the nearest side of Britain ".

It is a matter of conjecture who this successor was, but Suetonius, who compiled the lives of the twelve Caesars about A. The Emperor Domitian died in A. On his death he was followed by his adopted son Trajan. Of affairs in Britain we know little or nothing until the accession of Hadrian, the successor of Trajan, in A.

Spartianus, who wrote, about the beginning of the fourth century, the Lives of the later emperors, tells us in his biography of Hadrian that the Britons at the outset of his reign could not be maintained under Roman authority. Julius Severus was at this time A.

He set things in order there, and was the first, as Spartianus says, to construct a wall, of some eighty miles in length, which was to serve as a boundary between the bar- barians and the Romans, that is, those who accepted Roman rule.

The length of this wall, corresponding as it does with that which runs from Wallsend on the Tyne to Bowness in Cumberland, compels one to identify it with the latter. The inscriptions found in the neighbourhood of this wall which consisted of a stone wall with large and small forts, together with a ditch date, as Dr. Haverfield says, "mainly if not wholly from Hadrian's reign. Mommsen thinks this was thrown up in connexion with Hadrian's wall, but other authorities look upon it as an earlier structure.

Hadrian died in A. Angelo at Rome. Antoninus Pius was his succes- sor. Julius Capitolinus, who wrote about the beginning of the fourth century, tells us that during the reign of Antoninus the Britons were reduced to order by Lollius Urbicus, who had been sent to Britain as Governor in A. He constructed a second wall of sods between the Clyde and Forth, after he had driven away the barbarians. Haverfield infers that it was soon abandoned. The inscriptions found along its course show that the legions employed in constructing it the twentieth, the second, and the sixth finished the work in the time of Antoninus Pius.

Pausanias, a Greek writer of about the middle of the second century, inci- dentally mentions that the Emperor Antoninus deprived the Brigantes of much of their lands because they had begun to overrun the Genunian territory or patrimony Moird , of which the inhabitants were subject to the Romans. The construction of the second wall by Lollius Urbicus seems to have been connected with his efforts to punish the Brigantes, whom we find in previous records to have been included in the region now called Northumberland, and to have extended to the Forth.

The territory taken from the Brigantes was, there- fore, in that region ; and the Genunian land, which was open to their attacks, may have been either north or south of the Tyne- Bowness wall. Sir John Rhys would make the Brigantes here mentioned the northern section extending to the Forth, and he would look for the Genunian possessions somewhere in that quarter.

In the absence of any inscriptions near the Clyde-Forth wall later than Antonine, Dr. Haverfield's conjecture that it was quickly abandoned seems very probable, and, as the Romans appear to have been hard pressed in this region all the time, it is not likely that the Genunian territory, occupied by a people subject to Rome, should be found in this part of the country.

Where then was this Genunian or as some editors would read, Venunian or Venuvian territory? The late Dr. Columba, the Irish apostle of the Picts of North Britain, died within not many days after the arrival of St. Augustine in the island of Thanet A. His name is given as Artbrannan, a thoroughly Celtic appellation, and yet Columba required an interpreter to talk with him. It is therefore argued that he was a Pict and spoke Pictish, which presumably was a non-Celtic speech but this would leave his Celtic name unexplained.

Of the Geona cohort, Dr. Reeves wrote Adamnan's Life of Columba, p. This he would locate in the Pictish mainland opposite Skye, but it is hard to believe that Roman institutions could survive so late, as the words " Primarius " and " Cohort " imply, in this wild and rather inaccessible country, and it is still more difficult to believe that this could be the Genunian territory which was occupied by a tribe subject to Rome in A.

This is sufficiently near the Brigantes, whether these were within or without the Tyne-Solway wall, to account for their attack on Vinunian or Genunian territory. The Greek word used by Pausanias, Moira, was employed, it is true, by Xenophon to denote a division of an army, and suggests thus the Latin Cohort, but it is far more frequently used for patrimony, share, or portion.

Prospective studies with appropriate sample size to determine potential overall survival benefit are planned within the INFORM consortium. Upadhyaya 1 , J. Winston 2 , E. Mort 2 , K. Dodd 2 , A. McDyer 3 , S. Moore 3 , D. Cooper 2 , L. Thomas 2. Neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product is a tumour suppressor protein and downregulates Ras. In a pilot study, we employed this approach to identify genes differentially expressed between benign and malignant NF1 tumours and then correlated this with copy number alterations.

The same tumour samples were analysed by Affymetrix SNP array 6. Bochennek 1 , T. Dantonello 2 , A. Borkhardt 3 , U. Dirksen 4 , A. Eggert 5 , J. Greiner 6 , R. Handgretinger 7 , B. Kazanowska 8 , C. Kratz 9 , R. Ladenstein 10 , G. Ljungman 11 , E. Hallmen 2 , E. Koscielniak 2 , T. Klingebiel 1. Many patients however, received other type of consolidation therapy based on individual decision of the treating centers: i. The question what the best MT will be remains open. Winter 1 , V.

Fasola 3 , H. Brisse 4 , V. Mosseri 5 , D. Orbach 1. Little meaningful improvement in the outcome of this disease has been observed over the last 30 years. There is no clear international recommendation concerning the use of salvage chemotherapy at relapse. Results : First relapse occurred after a median interval of 22 months and remained localized in Best specific response rates were Overall, 40 patients Conclusion : Salvage chemotherapy plays a central role in the management of patients with relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma.

Marke 1 , E. Tijchon 1 , D. Boer 2 , M. Demkes 1 , L. Kuiper 3 , P. Hoogerbrugge 1 , M. Scheijen 1. We studied the genetic interaction between IKZF1 and BTG1 in leukemia development and glucocorticoid responses using knockout mouse models and human leukemia cell lines. Perkins 1 , S. Hsieh 2 , T. DeWees 2 , E. Shinohara 3 , H. Frangoul 4.

Results : A total of 4, patients were included. Further research into the causes for worse outcome for these patients is warranted. Conter 1 , M. Valsecchi 2 , B. Buldini 3 , R. Parasole 4 , F. Locatelli 5 , A. Colombini 1 , C. Rizzari 1 , M. Putti 3 , E. Barisone 6 , L. Lo Nigro 7 , N. Santoro 8 , O. Ziino 9 , A. Pession 10 , A. Testi 11 , C. Micalizzi 12 , F. Casale 13 , D. Silvestri 1 , G. Cazzaniga 14 , A. Biondi 1 , M. Schrappe 15 , G. Basso 3. Pulsipher 1 , N.

Esiashvili 2 , X. Hunger 4 , T. Merchant 5 , P. Brown 6 , D. Wall 7 , S. Grupp 4. Results : Of enrolled, patients had lung doses available for analysis. Pluijm 1 , M. Fiocco 3 , P. Hoogerbrugge 4 , J. Leeuw 5 , M.

Bruin 6 , I. Bresters 7 , M. Lequin 8 , J. Roos 9 , A. Veerman 9 , R. Pieters 10 , M. Results : Thirty patients 6. BMD decline occurs from the moment of ON diagnosis, this suggest that the already existing BMD decline during ALL therapy is further aggravated by factors such as restriction of weight bearing activities and destruction of bone architecture due to ON. Debatin 1 , L. Meyer 1. This emphasizes the need for novel treatment strategies in addition to established chemotherapy without increasing general toxicity.

In this study, we aimed to evaluate CD70 as a therapeutic target for directed immunotherapy. Rasche 1 , C. Bradtke 2 , G. Zimmermann 4 , M. Dworzak 5 , J. Stary 6 , U. Creutzig 4 , D. Reinhardt 1. Conclusion : We identified the monosomal karyotype and trisomy 8 without additional cytogenetic aberrations as potentially poor prognostic factors in pediatric AML, thereby diminishing the impact of the complex karyotype.

Stieglitz 1 , A. Chang 1 , G. Laura 1 , Y. Wang 3 , E. Esquivel 1 , A. Gruber 3 , K. Stegmaier 2 , M. Loh 1. Next generation sequencing was performed in a large cohort of patients in order to identify additional genetic alterations in this disease. Targeted, deep sequencing was then carried out in an additional 71 patients. Results : Pathogenic mutations from exome sequencing were identified in 16 genes, several of which were only detected in a clonal fashion at relapse.

The recurrent mutations involved genes regulating signal transduction, gene splicing, the polycomb repressive complex and transcription. Importantly, the number of somatic alterations present at diagnosis was the major determinant of outcome with patients harboring two or more somatic alterations at diagnosis having a significantly inferior survival compared to those with less than two despite treatment with HSCT.

In addition, when modeled in a multivariate analysis, only the number of somatic alterations remained independently prognostic of poor outcome. By focusing on patients with relapsed disease, we also established that the model for disease progression in JMML is surprisingly simplistic, with a linear acquisition of mutations compared to the branching model seen in other cancers.

Conclusion : Patients with JMML harboring two or more somatic alterations at diagnosis have unacceptably poor outcomes with conventional treatment and should be risk stratified to receive tailored treatments based on their genetic profile. Trka 4 , A. Baruchel 5 , D. Reinhardt 6 , R. Pieters 2 , M. Fornerod 1 , C. Zwaan 1. PHF6 , a gene located on Xq Studies show that suppression of PHF6 promotes myeloid tumor cell growth in vivo Meacham, Of the 6 patients with a mutation, one was refractory, and 4 relapsed.

Four patients died due to leukemia and two are in CCR. Supriyadi 1 , I. Purwanto 1 , P. Widjajanto 1. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of childhood AML in Dr. The diagnosis of AML was confirmed based on morphological and histochemical examinations of marrow samples. Supportive care including infection control has considerable influence to the success in the treatment of AML.

Thacker 1 , G. Narula 1 , M. Prasad 1 , N. Patkar 2 , P. Subramaniam 2 , S. Gujral 2 , P. Tembhare 2 , P. Amare 3 , V. Gota 4 , S. Banavali 1. Of these, The event free and overall survival of group was It causes alarming growth retardation and significant skin depigmentation and also has probable impact on immune, pulmonary and muscular system.

A larger multicentric prospective study with serial longitudinal testing is required to assess its impact on all organ systems. Wechsler 1 , J. Heath 1 , W. Aumann 1 , C. Lavau 1. We created artificial retroviral CRM1 fusion constructs and assessed their leukemogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

To investigate leukemogenic potential in vivo , we transplanted mice with retrovirally transduced BM progenitors. These primary leukemias were transplantable, causing leukemias with a shorter latency, and leukemia blasts expressed elevated levels of Hoxa genes.

Conclusion : Our results demonstrate that CRM1 regulates the expression of Hoxa genes in murine leukemia cells, and that CRM1 fusions can drive murine leukemogenesis. Novel CRM1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials. Hesseling 1 , F. Kouya 2 , G. Mbah 3 , P. Wharin 4 , P. McCormick 4 , E. Katayi 2 , P. Achu 5 , R. Bardin 2. To record the incidence of early deaths, deaths during treatment, relapses and long term survival in this cohort.

The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, fine needle aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, bone marrow and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Results : Median age was 8 range 3 — 15 years. Forty two deaths 5. One or more relapses occurred in Relapses can be successfully treated with a 3 week rescue protocol or full retreatment. El Kababri 1 , S.

Cherkaoui 2 , L. Hessissen 1 , M. Khattab 1 , A. Madani 2 , A. Quessar 2 , S. Barsaoui 3 , N. Cherif 4 , M. Raquin 5 , M. Raphael 6 , C. Patte 7 , M. Harif 8. They were stratified in 3 risk groups A, B, C , and treated with polychemotherapy of progressive intensity. Improvement in supportive care and increased experience of healthcare teams contributed to the better outcome in the second period.

Bouda 1 , F. Traore 2 , J. Atteby 3 , K. Pondy 5 , C. Moreira 6 , M. Harif 7 , C. Patte 8. Median age: 7. Results : patients are alive in CR1 94 after protocol treatment and 10 despite early treatment stop , 5 in CR2 and 14 in unknown status. Dose intensity during first weeks of treatment is an important prognostic factor. Although improvements still have to be done, results are encouraging with increase of cure rate and lower percentage of patients lost to FU compared to previous studies.

Mutai 1 , I. Mtete 1 , P. Mehta 2 , S. Gopal 3 , G. Liomba 4 , Y. Fedoriw 5 , R. Krysiak 4 , P. Kazembe 6 , N. Diagnosing lymphomas presenting without classical jaw masses is challenging given limitations in radiology and pathology. We describe presentations and outcomes for diverse pediatric lymphomas in central Malawi. Diagnosis was pathologically confirmed in 50 patients and clinical in the remainder.

Results : Median age was 8. Treatment paradigms accounting for pediatric lymphoma diversity in our setting are urgently needed to improve survival. Michaux 1 , C. Bergeron 2 , F. Mazingue 3 , V. Gandemer 4 , F. Mechinaud 5 , O. Lejars 6 , C. Coze 7 , S. Ducassou 8 , C. Patte 9 , A.

Uyttebroeck 10 , Y. Bertrand 1. However, the patients who relapse or the refractory patients still have poor prognosis. The median age was 7. The survival rate at 8 years was 8. In ten patients, intensification with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation HSCT was performed and 4 of them had a second relapse. Conclusion : Results of the second line treatment, including intensive chemotherapy and HSCT, are still disappointing in controlling refractory forms.

The early identification of these aggressive forms is mandatory to improve the prognosis with early intensification in first remission. Valid prognostic parameters, such as prognostic biological features are needed with multicentric international cooperation for collecting information on these rare diagnoses.

Ippolito 1 , N. Czuczman 2 , C. Mavis 3 , D. Rolland 4 , M. Tiwari 5 , M. Cairo 5 , R. Barth 1. Recently published data implicated PI3K in Burkitt lymphomagenesis. Manley 1 , T. Trippett 2 , A. Smith 3 , M. Macy 4 , S. Leary 5 , J. Boklan 6 , K. Cohen 7 , L. Shen 8 , C. Herzog 9 , C.

Zhang 11 , S. Chi 1. Background : Cabazitaxel is a novel taxane with increased activity against other taxane resistant tumors in vitro; with demonstrated penetration through the blood brain barrier, making it a potential therapy for brain tumors. This study also characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic PK profile of cabazitaxel.

The DLT period encompassed the first cycle. Cabazitaxel was administered IV once every 3 weeks. PK studies were performed during the first cycle and tumor assessment every 9 weeks. Patients could remain on study drug if they had no evidence of progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Common adverse events were fatigue, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, febrile neutropenia and hypersensitivity reactions.

Slightly higher plasma clearance compared to adult trials was observed. A phase II trial in brain tumors is ongoing. Surun 1 , M. Dujaric 2 , D. Orbach 1 , I. Jimenez 1 , I. Aerts 1 , H. Pacquement 1 , F. Bourdeaut 1 , G. Schleiermacher 1 , J. Michon 1 , J. Dupont 1 , F. Doz 1. Data were recorded anonymously. Sipol 1 , T. Richter 1 , C. Wernicke 1 , S. Burdach 1. Objectives : Oncogene addiction provides ideal targets for immunotherapy.

Spleen size and weight normalized by MondoA kd. Epelman 1 , R. Melaragno 1 , E. Gorender 1 , R. Medeiros 1. Inhibition of mTOR has been shown to inhibit sarcoma cells in vitro and also inhibit the growth of xenografs of rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma cell lines in vivo.

All patients were previously heavly treated with a median of three 1 to 6 chemotherapy regimens with three or four drugs. Results : There were administered 42 cycles in which partial response was reached in two patients one osteosarcoma and one rhabdomyosarcoma that lasted for 5 and 11 months respectively, stable disease in other one patient for 4 months and progression in 14 patients. There were adverse events related to everolimus in five patients in which only one patient had grade 3 toxicity.

Despite 14 from 17 had disease progression, everolimus therapy was well tolerated with little severe toxicity. Conclusion : Based on these results, everolimus is safe and well tolerated and displayed some clinical activity. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate efficacy of everolimus as adjuvant therapy in a cohort of pediatric patients enrolled at diagnosis.

Kebudi 1 , S. Buyukkapu Bay 1 , F. Cakir 2 , O. Gorgun 1 , B. Zulfikar 1 , F. Yaman Agaoglu 3 , E. Darendeliler 3. Cefixime prophylaxis was used to reduce irinotecan associated diarrhea in all patients. The diagnosis were Ewing sarcoma 13 , rhabdomyosarcoma 8 , neuroblastom 7 and Wilms tumor 1 , osteosarcoma 1.

All patients received VIT at second or further relapses. Radiotherapy was used in 11 patients as local therapy. The main adverse effect of the VIT combination was diarrhea. It may have more effect if used at first relapse. Chastagner 1 , B.

Devictor 2 , B. Geoerger 3 , I. Aerts 4 , P. Leblond 5 , D. Frappaz 6 , J. Gentet 7 , S. Periodic blood samples were collected and plasma DXR concentrations were quantified to characterize the PK. The most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities reported were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

No cardiac toxicity occurred. Mehta 1 , E. Fruge 2 , J. Slone 2 , A. Slone 2 , G. Airewele 2 , E. Ishigami 3. JPHO , , 32, No. Conclusion : This Global Leadership Seminar has demonstrated success in helping our SSA program teams improve leadership capacity and negotiate change effectively. This Seminar is a novel and effective strategy to mentor international medical leaders in the global setting.

As our next phase, we plan to include local leaders in future seminars. Bodkyn 1 , S. Weitzman 2,3 , C. Sin Quee 4,5 , E. Adler 3 , C. Alexis 6 , Z. Allen 7 , J. Boyle 9 , B. Datta 9 , S. Gibson 11 , S. Gupta 2 , P. Odame 2 , S.

Read 3,7 , M. Thame 16 , G. Wharfe 11 , V. Blanchette 2,3. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago. Results : Integral to the success of SCI, communication is maintained through a standardized network of telemedicine facilities, installed or upgraded by SCI in all participating countries.

Conclusion : SCI has achieved its goals for the first phase of this ambitious project establishing the formal links between six countries and SickKids. This will now pave the way for the second phase of the project to assure that SCI can contribute to improving diagnosis and management of children with cancer and blood disorders in the partner Caribbean countries.

Burns 1 , P. Bird 1,2. Collecting data on incidence, mortality and survival is crucial for service planning, demonstrating progress and making a robust case for support to funders and local policy makers. Many treatment centres in LMIC have neither the facilities available nor sufficient capacity of trained staff to be able to plan for reliable electronic data collection. A consultation period was undertaken with healthcare professionals and data collection experts on site at WCC's partner hospital in Bangladesh, and with WCC's medical trustees, to obtain advice on the essential fields required for storing paediatric oncology data.

The patient registry was then designed and programmed in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic. Results : The system was tested at WCC's partner hospitals in Ghana, by trained and experienced local database managers. A training manual was also developed to support the use of the system.

Both are available free of cost for any interested LMIC paediatric oncology centre. Conclusion : A simple, reliable and safe database system has been created and introduced to a number of local paediatric oncology teams. Each database is owned and controlled by local teams and will permit them to log and analyse patient data systematically. Afungchwi 1 , G. Afungchwi 2 , P. Hesseling 3 , C. Kimbi 4 , P. Nfor 5 , J.

Kaah 2 , F. Kouya 4 , P. Wharin 6 , E. Tanni 2. Burkitt Lymphoma BL is the most common childhood malignancy. Traditional medicine is a choice of many Cameroonians for health care. The scope of knowledge and practice of traditional healers is undefined, and often entraps children with malignancies. This study looks at the diagnosis, methods and costs of treatment, and parent's attitudes in relation to traditional medicine in the setting of BL.

A questionnaire was used to interview parents on the use of traditional medicine in their child's disease. Patients diagnosed between and were analysed. Results : parents were interviewed. Common diagnosis provided by the traditional healers include: liver problem, abscess, witch craft, poison, hernia, side pain, spleen, mushroom in the belly, toothache, mumps.

Methods of management include: massage, cuts, concoctions, and incantations. The charge for these services include domestic animals, farm tools, and cash ranging from FCFA 0. The choice of traditional medicine was based on failure of earlier attempts in a hospital, recommendation of relatives, and belief that some diseases can only be treated by traditional medicine.

Conclusion : Traditional healers are significantly involved in BL management in Cameroon. Collaboration with traditional healers could reduce late diagnosis and improve cure rates of BL. Becker 1 , C. Furch 1 , J. Hubertus 1 , D. Aim of the following analysis was to evaluate the impact of agressive primary surgery on survival in HCC in our study and in comparison with other HCC series. Initial complete tumor resection, if somehow feasible, was aim for all patients.

Histology of tumor specimens was zentrally reviewed. Results : Data from 43 patients could be analyzed. One patient died before any treatment was started. However, only 4 patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and secondary complete resection survived with NED. Compared to other pediatric HCC series OS and primary resection rate is superior in our study, although patients and tumor characteristics are similar except for a higher percentage of underlying liver disease in other series.

Conclusion : Primary surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment in pediatric HCC. Further prognostic factors such as underlying liver diesease should be analyzed in larger trials. Yuan 1 , M. Tang 2 , Y. Shi 4. The study retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcome of those patients treated by Wuhan protocol and assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of this protocol, in order to provide the basis for further optimization of treatment.

All statistical data were evaluated by SPSS version Survival curves were estimated according to Kaplan Meier. Results : There were 90 boys and 37 girls, the male to female ratio was 2. The multivariate analysis revealed that metastases at diagnosis HR 2. Conclusion : Neoadjuvant chemotherapy could improve the complete surgical resection rate effectively. Bourdeaux 1 , S. Hollanders 1 , X. Stephenne 2 , F.

Smets 2 , I. Scheers 2 , M. Janssen 1 , C. Sokal 2 , B. Brichard 3 , J. Otte 1 , R. Reding 1. The aim of this study was to review our experience with total hepatectomy and liver transplantation as treatment for HCC in children. Only 2 patients received systemic chemotherapy before LT. Two patients showed HCC recurrence pulmonary. One patient died of recurrent HCC. There is no argument, either biological or based on evidence, that the selection of pediatric candidates for transplantation should be based on the same criteria as in adult patients Milan criteria.

The use of living donor LT for this indication provides an optimal timing, avoiding HCC dissemination before a cadaveric organ becomes available. Hiyama 1,2 , S. Kurihara 1 , O. Miyuki 1 , U. Yuka 1 , N. Morihara 2 , I. Fukuba 2 , R. Komatsu 2. The outcome of the HB cases mainly depends on the biological characteristics and disease staging, but the candidate genes correlated with HB progression have not been identified.

Sequence capture enrichment strategies and massively parallel next generation sequencing NGS were used for such gene discovery. In these cases, 10 had lung metastatic cases and 13 of the remaining 39 cases had vascular invasion or multifocal lesions at admission. Consequently, 14 cases had a relapse and 10 cases died of disease. Results : Among these 49 HBL cases, mutations and deletions compared the corresponding normal sample were 67 and median and genes including CNNB1 exon 3 was nominated as more than 10 cases had mutations.

Fedatto 1 , D. Marco Antonio 2 , M. Baroni 1 , R. Panepucci 2 , A. Goes 3 , C. Martinelli Jr 1 , S. Antonini 1 , M. Tucci Jr 4 , L. Neder 5 , A. Seidinger 6 , M. Matellaro 6 , J. Yunes 6 , S. Brandalise 6 , L. Tone 1 , C. Scrideli 1. Conclusion : Our findings suggest a potential role of microRNAs in pediatric ACT development and prognosis, which can contribute to a better understand in the mechanisms of action of miRNAs in this tumor.

Spinelli 1 , L. Rossi 1 , S. Strambi 1 , M. Massimino 2 , A. Ferrari 2 , G. Bisogno 3 , G. Cecchetto 4 , A. Inserra 5 , A. Antonelli 6 , P. Miccoli 1. DTC in paediatric age is rare and has an excellent prognosis. Nevertheless, the best surgical treatment is unclear, and the debated focuses on radical vs conservative surgery.

Total thyroidectomy has a lower rate of recurrence but a higher risk of complications. Medullary carcinomas have been excluded. Results : Total thyroidectomy has been performed in Conclusion : The surgical treatment should be personalized and based on an accurate evaluation of the risk to choose the best surgical approach. Uppuluri 1 , S. Ramachandrakurup 2 , H. Doss 2 , R. Raj 2. Consent was obtained from the families after detailed explanation of the potential side effects of lenalidomide including neuropathy and pulse dexamethasone including osteoporosis as per institutional guidelines.

The regimen consisted of 6 cycles of pulse dexamethasone and lenalidomide with each cycle being 28 days. The children were monitored carefully for potential neurological side effects, constipation, headache, myalgia and cytopenias during follow up ranging from 1 month to 18 months. Results : All 4 children managed to complete the regimen without compliance issues as it was outpatient based and well tolerated.

One child had a fracture of both bones of forearm after a trivial fall. There were no documented grade IV cytopenias. The pilot regimen needs to be validated with more number of patients and long term safety studies and is particularly suited for resource poor countries. Thomas 1 , V. Ruland 1 , U. Kordes 2 , S. Hartung 2 , J. Wolff 3 , W.

Paulus 1 , M. Hasselblatt 1. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some younger children harboring atypical choroid plexus papillomas experience excellent outcome. We therefore aimed to investigate the prognostic value of increased mitotic activity in pediatric choroid plexus papillomas according to age.

Results : Median age at diagnosis of the 77 boys and 72 girls was 18 months. Conclusion : In choroid plexus papillomas, increased mitotic activity is associated with a higher probability of recurrence. Since the prognostic role of increased mitotic activity is restricted to older children, we suggest that a diagnosis of atypical choroid plexus papilloma according to current WHO criteria should not be made in children younger than 3 years.

Irtan 1,2 , B. Sznadjer 3 , H. Von Tinteren 3 , N. Graf 4 , M. Heij 5 , C. Bergeron 6 , B. Acha 8 , F. Spreafico 9 , M. Powis 10 , B. Okoye 11 , J. Wilde 12 , J. Godzinski 13,14 , K. Multivariable analysis MVA in the UKW3 trial showed that biopsy was not significantly associated with increased risk of local relapse but was limited by the small number of events.

To further address this important clinical question, we performed a similar analysis on patients registered in the SIOPWT trial. Risk factors for recurrence were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard methods. Only open biopsy required treatment as stage III. The HR for the association with [KP1] biopsy was not significant 1. Conclusion : This posthoc analysis did not show a significant association of biopsy with risk of local recurrence.

Leclair 1 , A. Floret 2 , I. Pellier 3 , K.

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