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A history of magic by bathilda bagshot ebook torrents

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a history of magic by bathilda bagshot ebook torrents

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Academy, a public shady park or place of groves near Athens, where Plato taught his philosophy and whence his school derived its name, of. French Academy, of forty members, was founded by Richelieu in , and is charged with the interests of the French language and literature,.

Besides these, there are in France other four. There are similar institutions in other states of Europe, all of greater or less note. Acanthus, a leaf-like ornament on the capitals of the columns of certain orders of architecture. Acca-Laurentia, the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who saved the lives of Romulus and Remus.

Accumulator, a hydraulic press for storing up water at a high pressure; also a device for storing up electric energy. Acetone, a highly inflammable liquid obtained generally by the dry distillation of acetates. Achard, a Prussian chemist, one of the first to manufacture sugar from beetroot Pindus, and falls into the Ionian Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of.

Mayo, with a bold headland ft. He was invulnerable except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him. Achilles of Germany, Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery, tough old gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very blazing,.

Achmed Pasha, a French adventurer, served in French army, condemned to death, fled, and served Austria; condemned to death a second. Achromatism, transmission of light, undecomposed and free from colour, by means of a combination of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint. Acland, Sir Henry, regius professor of medicine in Oxford, accompanied the Prince of Wales to America in , the author of several works.

Acne, a skin disease showing hard reddish pimples; Acne rosacea, a congestion of the skin of the nose and parts adjoining. Aconitine, a most virulent poison from aconite, and owing to the very small quantity sufficient to cause death, is very difficult of detection when.

Acorn-shells, a crustacean attached to rocks on the sea-shore, described by Huxley as "fixed by its head," and "kicking its food into its mouth. Acoustics, the science of sound as it affects the ear, specially of the laws to be observed in the construction of halls so that people may. Acre, St. Jean d' 7 , a strong place and seaport in Syria, at the foot of Mount Carmel, taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip. Acta diurna, a kind of gazette recording in a summary way daily events, established at Rome in B.

Acta Sanctorum, the lives of the saints in 62 vols. Actium, a town and promontory at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf Arta , in Greece, where Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony. Acton, an adventurer of English birth, who became prime minister of Naples, but was driven from the helm of affairs on account of his inveterate.

Acts of the Apostles, a narrative account in the New Testament of the founding of the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of Peter. Acupressure, checking hemorrhage in arteries during an operation by compressing their orifices with a needle. Acupuncture, the operation of pricking an affected part with a needle, and leaving it for a short time in it, sometimes for as long as an hour. Adair, Sir Robert, a distinguished English diplomatist, and frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions Adalbert, a German ecclesiastic, who did much to extend Christianity over the North Adalbert, St.

Adam, Alex. Adam, Robert, a distinguished architect, born at Kirkcaldy, architect of the Register House and the University, Edinburgh Adam Bede, George Eliot's first novel, published anonymously in , took at once with both critic and public. Adam Kadmon, primeval man as he at first emanated from the Creator, or man in his primeval rudimentary potentiality.

Adam of Bromen, distinguished as a Christian missionary in the 11th century; author of a celebrated Church history of N. Europe from to. Cape of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the resultant success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope. Adamawa, a region in the Lower Soudan with a healthy climate and a fertile soil, rich in all tropical products. Adamites, visionaries in Africa in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia in the 14th and 15th, who affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went.

Adamnan, St. Columba and a work on the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written Adams, John, the second president of the United States, and a chief promoter of their independence Adams, John Couch, an English astronomer, the discoverer simultaneously with Leverrier of the planet Neptune Adams, Parson, a country curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with a head full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but in.

Adams, Samuel, a zealous promoter of American independence, who lived and died poor Adam's Peak, a conical peak in the centre of Ceylon ft. Adanson, Michel, a French botanist, born in Aix, the first to attempt a natural classification of plants Addison, Joseph, a celebrated English essayist, studied at Oxford, became Fellow of Magdalen, was a Whig in politics, held a succession of. Government appointments, resigned the last for a large pension; was pre-eminent among English writers for the purity and elegance of his.

Adelaide , the capital of S. Australia, on the river Torrens, which flows through it into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. Adelberg, a town of Carniola, 22 m. Adelung, Johann Christoph, a distinguished German philologist and lexicographer, born in Pomerania Adipocere, a fatty, spermaceti-like substance, produced by the decomposition of animal matter in moist places. Adipose tissue, a tissue of small vesicles filled with oily matter, in which there is no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin and.

Adirondack Mountains, a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in the State of New York; source of the Hudson. Adjutant, a gigantic Indian stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft. Adler, Hermann, son and successor of the following, born in Hanover; a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their.

Adlercreutz, a Swedish general, the chief promoter of the revolution of , who told Gustavus IV. See Alcestis. Admiral, the chief commander of a fleet, of which there are in Britain three grades—admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the first displaying. Adolf, Friedrich, king of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles divided themselves into the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party, and.

Adolph of Nassau, Kaiser from to , "a stalwart but necessitous Herr" Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of Edward. Adolphus, John, an able London barrister in criminal cases, and a voluminous historical writer Adoptionists, heretics who in the 8th century maintained that Christ was the son of God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with. Adrets, Baron des, a Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty; died a Catholic Europe to the Popehood; A. Adrian, St. Europe for many ages, second only to St.

George; regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and protector. Adullam, David's hiding-place 1 Sam. Adullamites, an English political party who in deserted the Liberal side in protest against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced. Adumbla, a cow, in old Norse mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost, "licking the rime from the rocks—a Hindu cow transported north," surmises.

Advocate, Lord, chief counsel for the Crown in Scotland, public prosecutor of crimes, and a member of the administration in power. Advocates' Library, a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, founded in ; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds the. Advocatus diaboli, the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman Catholic Church appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization. See Minos. Affre, archbishop of Paris, suffered death on the barricades, as, with a green bough in his hand, he bore a message of peace to the insurgents.

The country, though long a bone of contention between England and. The Afghans proper are called. Africa, one of the five great divisions of the globe, three times larger than Europe, seven-tenths of it within the torrid zone, and containing over.

It was long a terra incognita, but it is now being explored in all directions, and. It is being parcelled out by European nations, chiefly Britain, France,. Afridis, a treacherous tribe of eight clans, often at war with each other, in a mountainous region on the North-Western frontier of India W. On the advice of the soothsayer Calchas sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia q. His fate and that of his house is the. Aganippe, a fountain in Boeotia, near Helicon, dedicated to the Muses as a source of poetic inspiration.

Festival, Feb. Ages, in the Greek mythology four—the Golden, self-sufficient; the Silver, self-indulgent; the Brazen, warlike; and the Iron, violent; together. In archeology, three—the Stone Age, the Bronze, and the Iron. In history, the. Middle and Dark, between the Ancient and the Modern. Aggas, Ralph, a surveyor and engraver of the 16th century, who first drew a plan of London as well as of Oxford and Cambridge.

Agglutinate languages, languages composed of parts which are words glued together, so to speak, as cowherd. Macedonian domination, d. Agnes, St. Festival, Jan. University of Bologna under sanction of the Pope; died a nun at her birthplace One of the three terms of the Vedic trinity, Soma and Indra being the other two. Agnolo, a Florentine artist, friend of Michael Angelo and Raphael, distinguished for his carvings in wood Agnosticism, the doctrine which disclaims all knowledge of the supersensuous, or denies that we know or can know the absolute, the infinite,.

Agnus Dei, the figure of a lamb bearing a cross as a symbol of Christ, or a medal with this device; also a prayer in the Mass beginning with the. Agoust, Capt. See Carlyle's "French Revolution," Bk. Province of India, famous for, among other monuments, the Taj Mahal, a magnificent. Agricola, Johann, a follower and friend of Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians.

Agricola, Rudolphus, a learned and accomplished Dutchman, much esteemed by Erasmus, and much in advance of his time; his most important. Agrippa, H. Cornelius, a native of Cologne, of noble birth, for some time in the service of Maximilian, but devoted mainly to the study of the. Vipsanius, a Roman general, the son-in-law and favourite of Augustus, who distinguished himself at the battle of Actium, and built.

Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus and the former, born at Cologne, and the mother of Nero. Her third husband was her uncle, the Emperor. Claudian, whom she got to adopt her son, and then poisoned him, in order to place her son on the throne; but the latter, resenting her.

Agtelek, a village NE. Ahmadabad , a chief town of Guzerat, in the Bombay Presidency, a populous city and of great splendour in the last century, of which. Ahmed, a prince in the "Arabian Nights," noted for a magic tent which would expand so as to shelter an army, and contract so that it could go. Aholibamah, a grand daughter of Cain, beloved by a seraph, who at the Flood bore her away to another planet.

Aidan, St. Aiguillon, Duke d', corrupt minister of France, previously under trial for official plunder of money, which was quashed, at the corrupt court of. Aikin, Dr. John, a popular writer, and author, with Mrs. Barbauld, his sister, of "Evenings at Home" Ailly, Pierre d', a cardinal of the Romish Church, and eminent as a theologian, presided at the council of Constance which condemned Huss. Ailsa Craig, a rocky islet of Ayrshire, 10 m. Ain, a French river, has its source in the Jura Mts.

Ainsworth, W. Ain-Tab 20 , a Syrian garrison town 60 m. Airdrie 19 , a town in Lanarkshire, 11 m. Aire, a Yorkshire river which flows into the Ouse; also a French river, affluent of the Aisne. Airy, Sir G. Aisne, a French river which, after a course of m. Aiton, Wm. Aix 22 , a town, the ancient capital of Provence, 20 m. Ajalon, Valley of, in Palestine, scene of a battle between Joshua and five Canaanitish kings, during which the sun and moon stood still at the. Ajodhya, an ancient city of Oudh, 77 m.

Akakia, Doctor, a satire of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the. President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which so excited the anger of Frederick the Great, the patron of the Academy, that he. Akakia, Martin, physician of Francis I. He was wise in. He reigned half a. Akenside, Mark, an English physician, who wrote, among other productions and pieces, the "Hymn to the Naiads," especially a poem entitled.

Akiba, Ben Joseph, a famous Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, a great authority in the matter of Jewish tradition, flayed alive by the Romans for. Akkas, a wandering race of negro dwarfs in Central Africa, with large heads and slender necks, who live by hunting. Al Rakim, the dog that guarded the Seven Sleepers q.

America, traversed by a river of the name, a little larger than England, highly fertile and a. Alabama, The, a vessel built in Birkenhead for the Confederates in the late American Civil War, for the devastation done by which, according.

Alacoque, Marie, a French nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the Sacred Heart Aladdin, a character in the "Arabian Nights," who became possessed of a wonderful lamp and a wonderful ring, by rubbing which together he. Alain de L'Isle, a professor of theology in the University of Paris, surnamed the Doctor universel Aland Isles, a group of small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, of which 80 are inhabited; fortified by Russia.

Alans, a barbarous horde from the East, who invaded W. Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, but were partly exterminated and partly ousted. Italy, and took and pillaged Rome; died at Cosenza, in Calabria, in , at the early age of thirty-four. Alaric II. America to Behring Strait; it is. Alasnam, a hero related of in the "Arabian Nights" as having erected eight statues of gold, and in quest of a statue for a ninth unoccupied. Alava, Ricardo de, a Spanish general, born in Vittoria, joined the national party, and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and became.

Albacete , a province in Spain, with a capital 30 of same name, m. Alban Lake, near Alban Mount, 6 m. Alban, St. Albani, Mme. Albano, Lake of, a small crater-like lake 15 m. Albany, a town in W. Australia, on King George Sound, m. Albany, the Duke of, a title formerly given to a member of the royal family, and revived in the present reign. Albategni, a distinguished Arabian astronomer, born in Mesopotamia in the 9th or 10th century of our era; his observations extended over Albatross, the largest and strongest of sea-birds, that ranges over the southern seas, often seen far from land; it is a superstition among.

Albert, archbishop of Mainz, a dignity granted him by Pope Leo X. Pope needed it for building St. Peter's, he borrowed, the Pope granting him the power to sell indulgences in order to repay the loan, in which. Albert, the last Grandmaster of the Teutonic knights, who being "religious in an eminent degree and shaken in his belief" took zealously to.

Protestantism and came under the influence of Luther, who advised him to declare himself Duke of Prussia, under the wing of Sigismund of. Poland, in defiance of the Teutonic order as no longer worthy of bed and board on the earth, and so doing, became founder of the Prussian. Albert, markgrave of Brandenburg, defined by Carlyle "a failure of a Fritz," with "features" of a Frederick the Great in him, "but who burnt away.

Albert, St. Festival, Nov. Albert I. Albert II. Albert Medal, a medal of gold and of bronze, instituted in , awarded to civilians for acts of heroism by sea or land. Albert the Bear, markgrave of Brandenburg, called the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the. Albinos, persons or animals with preternaturally pale skin and fair hair, also with pupils of a red or pink colour, and eyes too weak to bear full.

Alboin, king of the Lombards in the 6th century, from to ; invaded Italy as far as the Tiber, and set up his capital in Pavia; incurred the. Albumen, a glairy substance a constituent of plants and animals, and found nearly pure in the white of an egg or in the serum of the blood. The Indians long remembered his benign rule, and used to visit his tomb to pray him to. The Order of Alcantara, a religious and military order, was established in here, for defence against the Moors, and was suppressed.

Hercules descended to the lower world and brought her. Alchemy, the early analysis of substances which has in modern times developed into chemistry, and which aimed chiefly at the discovery of. He involved his country in a rash expedition. Alcock, John, an eminent ecclesiastic of the reign of Edward IV. Alcohol, pure or highly rectified spirit obtained from fermented saccharine solutions by distillation, and the intoxicating principle of all spirituous.

Alcoholism, the results, acute or chronic, of the deleterious action of alcohol on the human system. Alcott, Louisa Mary, a popular American authoress, who acted as a nurse to the wounded during the Civil War; her works mostly addressed to. Aldehyde, a limpid, very volatile liquid, of a suffocating odour, obtained from the oxidation of alcohol. Aldine Editions, editions, chiefly of the classics, issued from the press of Aldus Manutius in Venice in the 16th century, and remarkable for the.

Aldus Manutius, or Aldo Manuzio, an Italian printer, born at Bassano, established a printing-office in Venice in , issued the celebrated. Aldine Editions of the classics, and invented the italic type, for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent, though the.

Alesius, or Alane, a noted Reformer, born in Edinburgh, converted to Protestantism by Patrick Hamilton; was driven first from Scotland and. Alessandria 78 , a strongly fortified and stirring town on the Tenaro, in Northern Italy, the centre of 8 railways, 55 m. Alessi, architect, born at Perugia, architect of the monastery and church of the Escurial, q.

Aletsch Glacier, The, the largest of the glaciers of the Alps, which descends round the south of the Jungfrau into the valley of the Upper. Pacific from Alaska in N. America, to Kamchatka, in. Granicus in and at Issus in ; subdued the principal cities of Syria, overran Egypt, and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris, routed the. Persians at Arbela; hurrying on farther, he swept everything before him, till the Macedonians refusing to advance, he returned to Babylon,.

He is said to have slept every night with his Homer and his. Alexander, St. Alexander, Solomon, first Protestant bishop of Jerusalem, of Jewish birth, cut off during a journey to Cairo Alexander III. Pope from to Alexander VI. In addition to Alexanders III. Alexander I. The Fierce; subdued a rising in the North, and stood stoutly in defence of the independent rights of both Crown and Church against the claim. Alexander II. Haco, king of Norway, and on the conclusion of peace gave his daughter in marriage to Haco's successor Eric; accidentally killed by falling.

His reign is distinguished by a. Asia, and by the war with Turkey in the interest of the Slavs in , which was ended by the peace of San Stephano, revised by the treaty. His later years were clouded with great anxiety, owing to the spread of Nihilism, and he was killed by a bomb thrown at him by a.

The present Czar is his son and successor. Alexander of Hales, the Doctor irrefragabilis of the Schools, an English ecclesiastic, a member of the Franciscan order, who in his "Summa. Alexander of Paris, a Norman poet of the 16th century, who wrote a poem on Alexander the Great in twelve-syllabled lines, called after him. Alexandria, from its intimate connection.

Alexandria 14 , a town on the Potomac, 7 m. Alexandrian Codex, an MS. Alexandrian Library, the library burned by the Caliph Omar in , said to have contained , volumes. Alexandrine Philosophy, a Gnostic philosophy, combining eastern with western forms of thought. Alexis, St. Alexis Michaelovitch, czar of Russia, the father of Peter the Great, the first czar who acted on the policy of cultivating friendly relations with.

Alexis Petrovitch, son of Peter the Great, conspired against his father as he had broken the heart of his mother, was condemned to death;. He managed to hold the empire together in spite of. Tragedy was his forte as a dramatist Alfonsine Tables, astronomical tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X. Alfonso I. Alfonso X. Alfonso III. Alford, Henry, vicar of Wymeswold and afterwards Dean of Canterbury; his works and writings were numerous, and included poems and.

His great work, however, was an edition of the Greek New Testament, with notes, various readings, and comments Alfred the Great, king of the West Saxons, and the most celebrated and greatest of all the Saxon kings. His troubles were with the Danes, who. Not long after this he. After this Alfred devoted himself to legislation, the administration of government, and the encouragement of learning, being a man of. England owes much to him both as a man and a ruler, and it was he who in the creation of a fleet laid the first foundation of her.

His literary works were translations of the "General History" of Orosius, the "Ecclesiastical History" of. Except his wit, it does not appear Frederick got much good out of. Algebra, a universal arithmetic of Arabian origin or Arabian transmission, in which symbols are employed to denote operations, and letters to.

The country is divided into Departments, of which Algiers, Oran, and Constantine are the respective capitals. It has been successively under. At the end of this period it became a nest of pirates, against whom a succession of expeditions were sent from. Since it fell into the hands of the. French the city has been greatly improved, the fortifications strengthened, and its neighbourhood has become a frequent resort of English. Algine, a viscous gum obtained from certain sea-weeds, used as size for textile fabrics, and for thickening soups and jellies.

Algonquins, one of the three aboriginal races of N. American Indians, originally occupying nearly the whole region from the Churchill and. Hudson Bay southward to N. Carolina, and from the E. Something chivalrous in him; brave as a lion; yet with a grace, a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. See Carlyle's "Heroes. Alimentary canal, a passage 5 or 6 times the length of the body, lined throughout with mucous membrane, extends from the mouth to the.

Alison, Archibald, an Episcopal clergyman in Edinburgh, of which he was a native, best known for his "Essay on the Nature and Principles of. Alison, Sir Archibald, son of the preceding, a lawyer who held several prominent legal appointments, and a historian, his great work being a.

Alison, W. Pulteney, brother of the preceding, professor of medicine in Edinburgh University, and a philanthropist Alkalies, bodies which, combining with acids form salts, are soluble in water, and properly four in number, viz. Alkaloids, bodies of vegetable origin, similar in their properties, as well as toxicologically, to alkalies; contain as a rule carbon, hydrogen,.

Holland, 25 m. All the Talents, Administration of, a ministry formed by Lord Grenville on the death of Pitt in Allan, David, a Scottish portrait and historical painter, born at Alloa; illustrated Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd"; his greatest work is the "Origin of. Allan, Sir William, a distinguished Scottish historical painter, born at Edinburgh, many of his paintings being on national subjects; he was a. Carolina; do not exceed ft.

Allegorical interpretation, assigning a higher than a literal interpretation to the Scripture record of things, in particular the Old Testament story. Allegory, a figurative mode of representation, in which a subject of a higher spiritual order is described in terms of that of a lower which resembles. Allegri, the family name of Correggio; the name of an Italian composer, born at Rome, the author of a still celebrated Miserere Allen, Bog of, a dreary expanse of bogs of peat E.

Allen, Ethan, one of the early champions of American independence, taken prisoner in a raid into Canada; wrote a defence of deism and. Allen, Grant, man of letters, born in Kingston, Canada, , and a prolific writer; an able upholder of the evolution doctrine and an expounder.

Allen, John, an M. Allen, Wm. Allentown 34 , a town on the Lehigh River, 50 m. Alleyn, Edward, a celebrated actor in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Holland, and the Empire to maintain the treaty of Utrecht; the Holy, in , between Russia, Austria, and Prussia against Liberal ideas; the. Triple, in , between Germany, Austria, and Russia, at the instigation of Bismarck, from which Russia withdrew in , when Italy stepped. Under it the signatories in guarantee the integrity of their respective territories.

Allier, a confluent of the river Loire, in France, near Nevers; also the department through which it flows. Allies, the name generally given to the confederate Powers who in and entered France and restored the Bourbons. Allies, Thomas William, an English clergyman who turned Roman Catholic, and wrote, in defence of the step, among others, the "See of St. Alligator, a N. American fresh-water crocodile, numerous in the Mississippi and the lakes and rivers of Louisiana and Carolina; subsists on.

Allingham, William, a poet and journalist, born in Ireland, of English origin; his most celebrated works are "Day and Night Songs" and. Allman, George J. Alloa 12 , a thriving seaport on north bank of the Forth, in Clackmannan, 6 m. Allopathy, in opposition to homoeopathy, the treatment of disease by producing a condition of the system different from or opposite to the. Allotropy, the capability which certain compounds show of assuming different properties and qualities, although composed of identical elements.

Alloway, the birthplace of Burns, on the Doon, 2 m. Alloway Kirk, a ruin S. All-Souls' Day, a festival on the 2nd November to pray for the souls of the faithful deceased, such as may be presumed to be still suffering in.

Allston, Washington, an American painter and poet, whose genius was much admired by Coleridge Alma, a river in the Crimea, half-way between Eupatoria and Sebastopol, where the allied English, French, and Turkish armies defeated the. Almack's, a suite of assembly rooms, afterwards known as Willis's Rooms, where select balls used to be given, admission to which was a.

Almaden 9 , a town on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena, in Spain, with rich mines of quicksilver. Al-mamoun, the son of Haroun-el-Raschid, the 7th Abbaside caliph, a great promoter of science and learning; b. Almanach de Gotha, a kind of European peerage, published annually by Perthes at Gotha; of late years extended so as to include statesmen.

Almansur, Abu Giafar, the 2nd Abbaside caliph and the first of the caliphs to patronise learning; founded Bagdad, and made it the seat of the. Almansur, Abu Mohammed, a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century, had overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain,.

Almaviva, a character in Beaumarchais' Marriage de Figaro, representative of one of the old noblesse of France, recalling all their manners. Almeida, Francesco, the first Portuguese viceroy of India, a firm and wise governor, superseded by Albuquerque, and killed on his way home. Almeria 37 , a chief town and seaport in the S. Almighty dollar, the Almighty whom the Americans are charged with worshipping, first applied to them, it would seem, by Washington Irving.

Almoravides, a Moslem dynasty which subdued first Fez and Morocco, and then S. Spain, from to Alnwick, the county town of Northumberland, on the Aln; at the north entrance is Alnwick Castle, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland, one. Aloe, a genus of succulent plants embracing species, the majority natives of S. Africa, valuable in medicine, in particular a purgative from.

Aloes wood, the heart of certain tropical trees, which yields a fragrant resinous substance and admits of high polish. Alost 25 , a Belgian town on the Dender, 19 m. Aloysius, St. Alpaca, a gregarious ruminant of the camel family, a native of the Andes, and particularly the tablelands of Chile and Peru; is covered with a.

Alpes, three departments in SE. France: the Basses-A, in NE. Digne; Hautes-A. Gap; A. Maritimes, E. Arethusa, and who pursued her under the sea as far as Sicily, where he overtook her and was wedded to her. Alpine Club, a club of English gentlemen devoted to mountaineering, first of all in the Alps, members of which have successfully addressed.

Alps, The, the vastest mountain system in Europe; form the boundary between France, Germany, and Switzerland on the N. According to height,. High, above the snow-line. In respect of range or extent, they have been distributed into Western, Middle, and Eastern: the Western, including.

Brenner and Hungarian plain to the Danube. These giant masses occupy an area of 90, sq. Germany after the Franco-German war in , by the peace of Frankfort; is under a governor general bearing the title of "Statthalter"; is a. Alsen 25 , a Danish island adjacent to Sleswig, one of the finest in the Baltic, now ceded to Germany. Al-Sirat, the hair-narrow hell-bridge of the Moslem, which every Mohammedan must pass to enter Paradise. Alsten, an island off the coast of Northland, Norway, with seven snow-capped hills, called the Seven Sisters.

Althen, a Persian refugee, who introduced into France the cultivation of madder, which became one of the most important products of the S. Alton Locke, a novel, by Charles Kingsley, written in sympathy with the Chartist movement, in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages. Alto-relievo, figures carved out of a tablet so as to project at least one half from its surface.

Altruism, a Comtist doctrine which inculcates sacrifice of self for the good of others as the rule of human action. Alured of Beverley, an English chronicler of the 12th century; his annals comprise the history of the Britons, Saxons, and Normans up to his. Alva, Duke of, a general of the armies of Charles V. Alvarez, Francesco, a Portuguese who, in the 15th century, visited Abyssinia and wrote an account of it.

Alviano, an eminent Venetian general, distinguished himself in the defence of the republic against the Emperor Maximilian Amadeus, Lake, a lake in the centre of Australia, subject to an almost total drying-up at times. Amadeus VIII. Amadeus I. The hero of the book, Amadis, surnamed the Knight of the Lion, stands for a.

Amadou, a spongy substance, consisting of slices of certain fungi beaten together, used as a styptic, and, after being steeped in saltpetre,. Amaimon, a devil who could he restrained from working evil from the third hour till noon and from the ninth till evening.

Amalekites, a warlike race of the Sinaitic peninsula, which gave much trouble to the Israelites in the wilderness; were as good as annihilated. Amalric, one of the leaders in the crusade against the Albigenses, who, when his followers asked him how they were to distinguish heretics. Amatitlan 10 , a town in Guatemala, the inhabitants of which are mainly engaged in the preparation of cochineal. Amazon, a river in S. America and the largest on the globe, its basin nearly equal in extent to the whole of Europe; traverses the continent at.

Amazons, a fabulous race of female warriors, who had a queen of their own, and excluded all men from their community; to perpetuate the. Amber, a fossil resin, generally yellow and semi-transparent, derived, it is presumed, from certain extinct coniferous trees; becomes electric by.

Ambergris, an ashy-coloured odorous substance used in perfumery, presumed to be a morbid fragment of the intestines of the spermaceti. Amberley, Lord, son of Lord John Russell, wrote an "Analysis of Religious Belief," which, as merely sceptical, his father took steps to secure. Ambleside, a small market-town near the head of Lake Windermere, in the Wordsworth or so-called Lake District. Amboise 5 , a town on the Loire, 14 m. The Conspiracy of A. The Edict of A. Amboyna , with a chief city of the name, the most important of the Moluccas, in the Malay Archipelago, and rich before all in spices; it.

He is the Patron saint of Milan; his attributes are a scourge, from. Amende honorable, originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender, stripped to his shirt, and led into court with a rope. Amerbach, Johann, a celebrated printer in Basel in the 15th century, the first who used the Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian; spared. America, including both North and South, m.

America, British N. Pacific; occupies one-third of the continent, and comprises the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. America, Central, extends from Mexico on the north to Panama on the south, and is about six times as large as Ireland; is a plateau with.

America, North, is m. America, South, lies in great part within the Tropics, and consists of a high mountain range on the west, and a long plain with minor ranges. America, Spanish, the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, till lately belonging to Spain, though the designation is often applied to all the countries. American Indians, a race with a red or copper-coloured skin, coarse black straight hair, high cheek-bones, black deep-set eyes, and tall erect.

World, just discovered by Columbus, which the first cartographers called America, after his name; these visits were made between and. Ames, Joseph, historian of early British typography, in a work which must have involved him in much labour Amherst, Lord, a British officer who distinguished himself both on the Continent and America, and particularly along with General Wolfe in.

Amice, a flowing cloak formerly worn by pilgrims, also a strip of linen cloth worn over the shoulder of a priest when officiating at mass. Ammonio, Andrea, a Latin poet born in Lucca, held in high esteem by Erasmus; sent to England by the Pope, he became Latin secretary to.

Ammonites, a Semitic race living E. Ammonites, a genus of fossil shells curved into a spiral form like the ram-horn on the head of the image of Ammon. Amoeba, a minute animalcule of the simplest structure, being a mere mass of protoplasm; absorbs its food at every point all over its body by.

Amomum, a genus of plants, such as the cardamom and grains of paradise, remarkable for their pungency and aromatic properties. Amorites, a powerful Canaanitish tribe, seemingly of tall stature, NE. Amos, a poor shepherd of Tekoa, near Bethlehem, in Judah, who in the 8th century B. Amphitryon the True, the real host, the man who provides the feast, as Zeus proved himself to the household to be when he visited Alcmene.

Amsterdam , the capital of Holland, a great trading city and port at the mouth of the Amsel, on the Zuyder Zee, resting on 90 islands. Amurnath, a place of pilgrimage in Cashmere, on account of a cave believed to be the dwelling-place of Siva. Amyot, Jacques, grand-almoner of France and bishop of Auxerre; was of humble birth; was tutor of Charles, who appointed him grand-almoner;.

Anabaptists, a fanatical sect which arose in Saxony at the time of the Reformation, and though it spread in various parts of Germany, came at. Anacharsis, a Scythian philosopher of the 6th century B. Anarchism, a projected social revolution, the professed aim of which is that of the emancipation of the individual from the present system of. Anastasius I. Anatomy of Melancholy, a "mosaic" work by Burton, described by Professor Saintsbury as "a wandering of the soul from Dan to Beersheba,.

Anaximander, a Greek philosopher of Miletus, derived the universe from a material basis, indeterminate and eternal B. Ancelot, a French dramatic poet, distinguished both in tragedy and comedy; his wife also a distinguished writer Ancestor-worship, the worship of ancestors that prevails in primitive nations, due to a belief in Animism q.

Ancient Mariner, a mariner doomed to suffer dreadful penalties for having shot an albatross, and who, when he reaches land, is haunted by. Ancillon, Frederick, a Prussian statesman, philosophic man of letters, and of French descent Andalusia 3, , a region in the S. Andamans, volcanic islands in the Bay of Bengal, surrounded by coral reefs; since used as a penal settlement.

Andelys, Les, a small town on the Seine, 20 m. Andersen, Hans Christian, a world-famous story-teller of Danish birth, son of a poor shoemaker, born at Odense; was some time before he. Anderson, James, a Scotch lawyer, famous for his learning and his antiquarian knowledge Anderson, James, native of Hermiston, near Edinburgh, a writer on agriculture and promoter of it in Scotland Anderson, John, a native of Roseneath, professor of physics in Glasgow University, and the founder of the Andersonian College in Glasgow.

Anderson, Mary, a celebrated actress, native of California; in married M. Navarro de Viano of New York; b. Andes, an unbroken range of high mountains, of them actively volcanic, which extend, often in double and triple chains, along the west of. South America from Cape Horn to Panama, a distance of m. Andocides, an orator and leader of the oligarchical faction in Athens; was four times exiled, the first time for profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Pyrenees, enclosed by mountains, under the protection of France and the Bishop of Urgel, in Catalonia;. Andover, an old municipal borough and market-town in Hampshire, 66 m. Andral, Gabriel, a distinguished French pathologist, professor in Paris University Andre, John, a brave British officer, tried and hanged as a spy in the American war in ; a monument is erected to him in Westminster.

Andrea Pisano, a sculptor and architect, born at Pisa, contributed greatly to free modern art from Byzantine influence Andreossy, Count, an eminent French general and statesman, served under Napoleon, ambassador at London, Vienna, and Constantinople,. Andrew, St. Andrew suffered. Andrews, Joseph, a novel by Fielding, and the name of the hero, who is a footman, and the brother of Richardson's Pamela. Andrieux, St. Turks without staying their advances ; A.

Andronicus of Rhodes, a disciple of Aristotle in the time of Cicero, and to whom we owe the preservation of many of Aristotle's works. Andros 22 , the most northern of the Cyclades, fertile soil and productive of wine and silk. Andujar 11 , a town of Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir, noted for the manufacture of porous clay water-cooling vessels.

Aneroid, a barometer, consisting of a small watch-shaped, air-tight, air-exhausted metallic box, with internal spring-work and an index, affected. Angel, an old English coin, with the archangel Michael piercing the dragon on the obverse of it. Angelico, Fra, an Italian painter, born at Mugello, in Tuscany; became a Dominican monk at Fiesole, whence he removed to Florence, and. Angerstein, John, born in St. Petersburg, a distinguished patron of the fine arts, whose collection of paintings, bought by the British Government,.

Angler, a fish with a broad, big-mouthed head and a tapering body, both covered with appendages having glittering tips, by which, as it burrows. Angles, a German tribe from Sleswig who invaded Britain in the 5th century and gave name to England. Island of the Angles, an island forming a county in Wales, separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait, flat, fertile,. Anglesey, Marquis of, eldest son of the first Earl of Uxbridge, famous as a cavalry officer in Flanders, Holland, the Peninsula, and especially at.

Waterloo, at which he lost a leg, and for his services at which he received his title; was some time viceroy in Ireland, where he was very. Anglia, East territory in England occupied in the 6th century by the Angles, corresponding to counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. England, though not subject to her jurisdiction, the term Anglo-Catholic being applied to the High Church section. Anglo-Saxon, the name usually assigned to the early inflected form of the English language.

Paul de. Africa, N. Anhalt-Dessau, Leopold, Prince of, a Prussian field-marshal, served and distinguished himself in the war of the Spanish Succession and in. Anichini, an Italian medallist of the 16th century; executed a medal representing the interview of Alexander the Great with the High Priest of.

Aniline, a colourless transparent oily liquid, obtained chiefly from coal-tar, and extensively used in the production of dyes. Animal heat, the heat produced by the chemical changes which go on in the animal system, the intensity depending on the activity of the. Animal magnetism, a name given to the alleged effects on the animal system, in certain passive states, of certain presumed magnetic influences. Animism, a belief that there is a psychical body within the physical body of a living being, correspondent with it in attributes, and that when the.

Anise, an umbelliferous plant, the seed of which is used as a carminative and in the preparation of liqueurs. Ann Arbor 10 , a city of Michigan, on the Huron, with an observatory and a flourishing university. Anne, Queen, daughter of James II. Kingdom; her reign distinguished by the part England played in the war of the Spanish succession and the number of notabilities, literary and.

Anne, St. Joachim, mother of the Virgin Mary, and the patron saint of carpentry; festival, July Anne of Brittany, the daughter of Francis II. Annecy 11 , the capital of Haute-Savoie, in France, on a lake of the name, 22 m. Annunciation Day, a festival on the 25th of March in commemoration of the salutation of the angel to the Virgin Mary on the Incarnation of. Avesta and Schopenhauer his knowledge of Hindu philosophy, and which influenced his own system so much Ansbach 14 , a manufacturing town in Bavaria, 25 m.

Anschar or Ansgar, St. Anselm, St. Rufus, who appointed him to succeed Lanfranc, quarrelled with Rufus and left the country, but returned at the request of Henry I. Anson, Lord, a celebrated British naval commander, sailed round the world, during war on the part of England with Spain, on a voyage of.

Anson's "Voyage Round the World" contains a highly interesting account of this, "written in brief,. Anstruther, East and West, two contiguous royal burghs on the Fife coast, the former the birthplace of Tennant the poet, Thomas Chalmers,. The fable has been used as a symbol of the.

Antar, an Arab chief of the 6th century, a subject of romance, and distinguished as a poet. Ant-eaters, a family of edentate mammals, have a tubular mouth with a small aperture, and a long tongue covered with a viscid secretion,. Antelope, an animal closely allied to the sheep and the goat, very like the latter in appearance, with a light and elegant figure, slender, graceful. Anthon, Charles, a well-known American classical scholar and editor of the Classics Anthrax, a disease, especially in cattle, due to the invasion of a living organism which, under certain conditions, breeds rapidly; called also.

Anthropoid apes, a class of apes, including the gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, and gibbon, without tails, with semi-erect figures and long. Anthropology, the science of man as he exists or has existed under different physical and social conditions. Antichrist, a name given in the New Testament to various incarnations of opposition to Christ in usurpation of His authority, but is by St. Anticosti, a barren rocky island in the estuary of St Lawrence, frequented by fishermen, and with hardly a permanent inhabitant.

She has been immortalised in one of the grandest. See the parting scene in Carlyle's "French Revolution. Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, grandson of the preceding; twice deprived of his kingdom, but recovered it; attempted to prevent the. Antigua, one of the Leeward Islands, the seat of the government; the most productive of them belongs to Britain. Antilles, an archipelago curving round from N. America to S. America, and embracing the Caribbean Sea; the Greater A. Antinomianism, the doctrine that the law is superseded in some sense or other by the all-sufficing, all-emancipating free spirit of Christ.

Antinomy, in the transcendental philosophy the contradiction which arises when we carry the categories of the understanding above experience. He was drowned in the Nile, and the grief of the emperor knew no bounds; he enrolled him among the gods, erected a. Saviour, son of one of Alexander's generals, fell heir. God, being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus; king from to Illustrious, failed.

The Sleep of Antiope, chef-d'oeuvre of Correggio in the Louvre. Antipope, a pope elected by a civil power in opposition to one elected by the cardinals, or one self-elected and usurped; there were some Antipyretics, medicines to reduce the temperature in fever, of which the chief are quinine and salicylate of soda.

Andes, in Ecuador, 19, ft. Socrates the rebuke, "I see your pride looking out through the rent of your cloak, O Antisthenes. Antium, a town of Latium on a promontory jutting into the sea, long antagonistic to Rome, subdued in B.

Helena, wrote "The Last Moments of Napoleon" Cassius at Philippi, formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus, fell in love with the famous Cleopatra, was defeated by Octavius in the. Antony of Padua, a Minorite missionary to the Moors in Africa; preached to the fishes, who listened to him when no one else would; the fishes. Antraigues, Count d', one of the firebrands of the French Revolution; "rose into furor almost Pythic; highest where many were high," but.

Antwerp , a large fortified trading city in Belgium, on the Scheldt, 50 m. Apes, Dead Sea, dwellers by the Dead Sea who, according to the Moslem tradition, were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf. Apocalyptic writings, writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B. Also, you will notice that some Muggle Wars are linked to the Wizarding Wars, since there is normally a connection of some sorts.

Of course, Wizarding Wars have a greater effect on the Muggle world than the other way round. This book is written chronologically. I will start out with the most ancient uses of magic in battles and wars, which dates back to 10, years BC, when the earliest witches and wizards first discovered how to use magic. Also the beginnings of Hogwarts will be discussed in detail, starting with the four founders and what made them to work together.

This was one of the most important events in our modern history, as without them there would be less wizards with such trained magical abilities. Please remember that while this illustrious book may contain a lot of information regarding the history of magic, there is still much more information to be found. One book cannot fully replace an education in the subject, nor can it replace further study in the field.

Wishing you a lot of joy traveling through the past, - Bathilda Bagshot Chapter 2 The First Steps — Ancient Egypt The logical place for us to start our exploration of the history of magic, is at the beginning. Or, as far back as we can trace at least. As I explained in my introduction, we have precious little information about the first witches and wizards. We have no idea who the first witch or wizard was, or how they discovered their extraordinary powers.

But one thing we can be certain of, is that they initially discovered their powers some time before the age of the Ancient Egyptians, who lived in North Africa around 5, years ago. The Ancient Egyptians are the earliest documented example of Wizarding culture.

In those times, magic and Muggle societies were fully integrated and witches and wizards were held in high esteem by all members of the community. Hieroglyphs inside several pyramids relate the importance of wizards in the Egyptian way of life. They were valued for their ability to read minds, for see the future, heal people, and most commonly, place curses on the tombs of the pharaohs.

Nowadays, curse breakers for wizard banks such as Gringotts, are hard at work deciphering these complicated and dangerous enchantments, in a bid to seize the treasures concealed within. The magic that was used by these ancient wizards was very powerful but also very primitive, much like the innate powers that all magical children are born with, but are unable to control properly at first. They experimented with their powers and, although this often led to catastrophes a poorly executed curse is rumoured to have severed the nose of the famous Sphinx , it was also a necessary part of the early development of magic.

When the Egyptian city of Meggido rebelled against the Egyptian rulers, the Pharaoh besieged the city and people began to starve. This terrible incident sparked experimentation with transfiguration, as people attempted to change previously worthless objects into much-needed supplies.

The Egyptians also experimented with basic potions but the baking sun often rendered their ingredients useless. However, they were successful in creating some potions, particularly those that worked well with sun-dried or shriveled ingredients. Ancient Egypt was the cultural and magical centre of the world for thousands of years but eventually its reign came to an end when it was conquered by the Ancient Romans — and so that is who we will learn about in the next chapter.

Chapter 3 Magic in Ancient Rome Before we can begin exploring the magical realm of Ancient Rome, we first must situate this region. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea, it became one of the largest empires in history. According to here own legend, Rome was founded by the twins brothers: Romelus and Remus, who where the sons of the God of war: Mars.

However we must admit that there are some, how few there may be or how often there talent appears on the surface, who truly possess the skill. In ancient Rome, foresight was seen as the most important branch, even the king would often consult with his priest to tell them what tomorrow might bring. The magic in ancient Rome in mostly found within the pages of the old myths and legends similar to the one of Romelus and Remus. During the time of the old legends, magic was openly used.

There where no laws concerning magic. It was believed to be good and helpful in many ways. Astronomy and Herbology were fields of great interest at the time, and many individuals worked tirelessly discovering the signs of the Zodiac as well as developing recipes for medicines using herbs and plants. Most of the doctors of that time where wizards or witches who knew a lot about healing and plants.

They where called Shay-mines, witch means healing hand. They are the ancestors of our healers. However after some time, the first evil wizards and witches appeared in the capital of Rome. Corruption and murder became the daily news from within the walls of Rome and soon all Muggles started to distrust the magical world. They even became afraid of magic. The true stories of old where forgotten, and the fact that magic, in her essence, was something good, was lost.

Truth became untruth and the dream became a nightmare. So it was that the hate and anger towards the wizards and witches grew. Very little from the history of that time reached our day, but it is quite sure that by the Middle Ages the Wizard world has suffered many changes.

This was a time of legends, magic and war. The arousal of evil wizards and witches was followed by the appearance of the first secret orders of magic, most of which created by those evil wizards with the objective to get rid of the Muggle persecution, destroy every wizard who make any opposition to this, and, finally, rule the world. The development of the Dark Arts was followed by the increasing interest of the wizard population in general for the art of dueling and also for the study of charms and spells.

Another very important historical fact of the Dark Age is the earliest record of the use of Broomsticks as a mean of transportation. Soon the use of the broomstick would be widespread and our all-time favorite sport would appear: the Quidditch was born! The Council has been essential in order to assemble the wizard community in one institution in order to achieve goals such as the fighting against the Dark Arts, government, and the pacific coexistence between wizards and Muggles.

Merlin also created the Order of Merlin, originally an institution with the goal of promoting laws to protect and benefit Muggles. It is unknown when the Order changed from an organization to an award or when its focus shifted from advocating Muggle rights to honoring great accomplishments in general. At the ending of the Middle Ages happened the most horrifying chapter of our history: The Witch Hunting.

The Muggles all over the known world gathered together in order to burn alive every witch our wizard they could find. Thousands of wizards were killed for no specific reason. It was a time of intolerance and anger. We will be studying both facts in the upcoming chapters. Chapter 5 A History of Magic: The Americas While it is easy to trace magical history in the Old World, from Egyptian mummies down to modern advances in magical DNA manipulation, it is important for every scholar to explore the magical history of the New World.

From the Skinwalker stories of the Southwest United States, to Aztec Nahualli traditions, the Americas are filled with magic traditions still in use to this day. The Americas are filled with strong traditions in animal and magical creature magics. The Aztec belief in Nahualli, or "totems", is rooted in Aztec histories and deities. The Aztec pantheon is filled with Gods and Goddesses who all take animal form, from Coatilicue's snakes to Huitzilopotchii the patron deity of Mexico , who often appears as a hummingbird.

Nahaualli is available to all people, and modern Aztec worshipers encourage finding one's inner totem. Yet the strongest Nahaualli are often revered wizards and witches, able to shapeshift into their totemic animal's form. Strong Nahaualli can pass powerfully magical spellsand brew strong potions on the feast days for their animal side.

Thus the Aztec calendar an entire area for separate magical history inquiry remains important for Aztec magic to this day. Beyond Aztec cultures, learning from magical creatures and animals remains a major theme in the Americas.

Stories about animals and magical creatures are part of strong oral traditions for teaching the young. Creation stories across many cultures revere the Turtle Cherokee and Haudenosaunee Confederacy as the base of the world; Spiders spin the world and create many cultures Hopi, Tewa, Cheyenne, Osage, Muskegee , and Coyote is the head trickster who brings chaos to many stories and spells New Perce, Dine, Menomini, Winnebago.

Calling upon Turtle or Spider or Coyote can influence the power of spells, protection charms, and potion making. Magical creatures also abound. The Yunwi Tsunsdi little people still help Cherokee people escape trouble throughout the Smokey mountains, leading children on trails through snowstorms and helping all who respect the land.

An offering to the Little People will increase a spell or potion to this day. Healers call on White Buffalo Woman, who brings powerful magic to healing spells. Another large body of history comes from magical flute traditions.

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