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The most important fair or market of the Chibchas was at Coyaima, in the territory of the Poincas, called by the Spaniards Taporogos, the name of one of its chiefs. These inhabited both sides of the Magdalena from the entrance of the E. Cnello to Neyva. There was taken salt, emeralds, painted mantles, works in gold, also grain gold. There was another large fair in the country of the cacique Zorocota, where, subsequently, was founded Puente Eeal on the river, then called Sarabita, to which came the Northern Chibchas, the Agataes, Chipetaes and the industrious Gruanes : here they obtained salt for gold, mantles, and woven cotton cloth of various qualities and colours.

The Peruvians used extensively the pod of the capsicum or aji. BoUaert, Ifumis. Soc, Huaca means sacred in Quichua. Geoirraphical Trans. The Poinciana Puleherrima, the yellow and scarlet variety, is called Malinche the name of Cortez's Indian mistress and Guacamayo, in Hon- duras, the latter being the name given to the large red parrot, called Ara and Lapa, in other parts of South and Central America, a bird the Maya Indians of Yucatan seems to have considered sacred, and dedicated to the sun.

At Itzamal, there was a temple to Einich Kakme, an idol fasliioned liie the sun, with the beak of a bird : he is sur- rounded -with rays of fire, and descended to burn the oifered sacrifice at mid-day, as the Vacamayu— a bright-feathered parrot— descends in its flight. Proebel's Central America, A specimen from Peru probably Quito silica, , alumina , glucina red 21 Neither the edifices nor the furniture of the Chibchas were in propor- tion with their other conveniences.

The only Chibcha chief who projected the building of a temple, was G-aranchaca; he usurped the dominions of the Zaque, pretending to be a child of the sun by the damsel Gracheta. She gave birth to a huaca something sacred , which was converted into a human being, who was brought up with veneration until he was a man, when he killed Hunsa and put himself in his place.

This fabulous G-aranchaea pretended, as they say, to build a sumptuous temple to his father, the sun; to which effect he ordered that stones and columns should be brought from the most distant parts of his dominions, but he died ere the building was commenced. Tantalic acid and Columbium occur in some varieties. Pine emeralds can be seen at Carthagena, extracted from the mines of Muzo, by a French company.

This gem is found in attached and imbedded crystals in alluvium. The finest are from veins, in a blue slate, of the age of our lower chalk, in the Valley of lluzo. One statue of the Virgin, in the Cathedral at Bogota, besides diamonds and other precious stones, has 12J5 emeralds.

Not far from the mountain of Itoeo, in the country of the Muzos, was found in two emeralds, weighing 24, casteUanos, the casteUano is 1, grs. Three leagues from Itoco is Abipi, where emeralds are found. The Pjllo. The rainbow was worsliipped by pregnant women among the Chibchas, and emeralds offered.

In the East Indies medicinal and taUsmanic vu-tues are ascribed to this gem- The heir to Chibeha power, when received as such, was placed ou a throne of gold and emeralds. The litter of the Zipa was ornamented with emeralds. In the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and navel of the dead Zipa, emeralds were placed. The Great Exhibition of contained the finest known emerald, 2 inches long, weighing 8 oz. Cortez sent an emerald to Spain, the base of which was as broad as the palm of the hand.

He is sometimes confounded with Bochica. He is known under the names of Nemterequetaba, Xue, Chuizapagua or the envoy of God. This ancient individual came, as before-mentioned, from the east ; he wore a long heard, and his hair was tied witli a fillet ; his dress was a tunic without a collar, and a mantle secured by the ends at the shoulders, a dress used by the Chibchas at the time of the discovery of the country, for the poncho and the ruana are of Peruvian origin, introduced after the conquest.

Xue found the people little better than savages, without other clothing than cotton in the rough, tied with cords, and without ideas of society or government. He commenced his exhortations at Bosa, where the Spaniards found a rib, venerated by the Indians, said to have belonged to an animal brought hither by this personage. Not only did he teach them to spin and weave, but wherever he pleased he left painted, in ochre, in various places, the figure of the weaving machine, so that they should not forget its construction.

Xue then went to the N. He not only taught by words, but by works, and passed his long life civilizing the Indians. Ultimately, he disappeared in Sogomoso, leaving a successor to continue the instruction and the guidance of the laws and regulations he had established by general consent, solely by the power of persuasion and example. As a proof of his wisdom, the fol- lowing regulation was in force at the time of the conquest, that is to say, fourteen centuries after his death : that if the legitimate wife of the Usaque died first she could prohibit the husband from marrying again -ontil five years were passed.

In this manner the TJsaque was careful in pleasing his wife, dreading her future vengeance ; and not being able to do away with polygamy, he invented this method to pro- tect the weaker sex, but it must be stated that the Chibchas behaved well to their wives, and took care of the sick and old.

Holt on, , says, this place is famous for the 'bones of eamiTorous elephants once exhumed here. Mollien's Colombia, Their country was very rich in emeralds. They had a singular tradition : that there was, in ancient times, on the other side of the Magdalena, the shadow of a man, called Ari, which amused itself with making wooden faces of men and women, casting them into the stream, from whence they issued in the form of human beings ; and these he taught to cultivate the earth : they then dispersed, and from this stock came the Indians who inhabit the surrounding regions.

The Muzos had no gods, nor did they worship the sun and moon, as the Bogotans did: they said these bodies were created after the wooden faces, in order to give them light when they became living beings. JDuring the honey-moon, the wife beat the husband. Their dead were dried before a slow fire, and not buried till a year had passed ; the widow was obliged to cultivate the ground for her support until the interment, when her relations took her home.

This appears to me to be a mere idea, and to have no foundation ; and as to Con, Pacha-camac and Viracocha, a critical examination shows that such is the confusion as to the history of this said to be Peruvian trimurti, that it is unsafe to follow these wholesale generalisations. Velasco, the historian of Qaito, and other writers of his time, as well as some moderns, have supposed that Peru was peopled from the west, making Easter Island a stepping-stone f this is another fanciful idea, ' The Mexican deity sometimes called the Grod of Air , the Pyzome of Brazil, Viracocha and Bochica, are represented as white men, with flowing beards.

Tez- catlipoea, another Mexican god, is described as a black. The people tatoo and paint. There are three plat- forms of stonework, in ruins ; on each stood four statues, one fifteen feet high, first seen by Davis, in Population then said to be to These people came from the islands of the west. Cook gives a drawing of the ears of the people, pierced, but unlike the Peruvian Orejon.

Some of the Mongols have their ears thus pierced and enlarged. Eogweggen, , in Dalrymple's Voyage, mentions the wor- ship of the Bun in Easter island ; one man there quite white, pendants in his ears, white and round, size of one's fist, appeared to be a priest. Bradford, Ellis, Pol. Others think that the New "World was peopled from the north, at a period before the existence of Behrings Straits!

Huematzin, a Mexican author, towards the close of the seventh cen- tury, gives an account of the migrations of the Tezcucans from Asia! Humboldt i observes, the predilection for periodical series, and the ex- istence of a cycle of sixty years, which is equal to sunas of the Muiscas, contained in the cycle of twenty years of the priests, appear to reveal the Tartarian origin of the nations of the New.

World ; in another part of his works he modestly says, " I think, I discover in the the Americans, the descendants of a race, who early separated from the rest of mankind, has followed up for a series of years, a peculiar road in the unfolding of its intellectual faculties, and its tendency towards civilization.

Such a discovery would certainly be one of the most brilliant which can be expected in reference to the history of mankind. Sir H. Eawlinson, commentiBg on the corrections of the assumed chro- nology, considered the time insufficient to account for changes of lan- guage and character, and that physiognomy was a more accurate test of the origin of the people than philology, especially among hill tribes ; for instance, in the inhabitants of the mountain districts of Mesopotamia, there was the same character of face as might be seen in the Assyrian marbles.

In the expedition to the river Zenu, in , a Cacica or female chief is spoken of, the cemetery of j;he surrounding country, where the dead were buried with all their treasure, food and drink, Heredia sacked, iinding twenty-four wooden idols covered with sheets of gold ; these were in pairs, sup- porting hamacs, in which were deposited precious objects, brought by the devout.

Quesada, after the battle of Bonza, returned to Bogota, when the King's fifth was 46, castel- lanos of gold and of emeralds ; a similar sum was set apart for those who had most distinguished themselves. The remainder was divided amongst the army, the foot soldier receiving castellanos of gold of low standard, guaninj and five emeralds, the horse soldier double.

Macuriz was the name of the chief of Bahaire, near Carthagena. In Ojeda's voyage thither, in , he found the natives to be war- like men, of Carib origin ; they wielded great swords of palm-wood, defended themselves with osier targets, and dipped their arrows in a subtle poison.

The women as well as the men mingled in battle, being expert with the bow, and throwing a species of lance called Azagay. Their language was said to be similar to the Cunacuiia independent Indians on the S. Granada, , Hervas, i. Cullen on the Darien ship Canal, Indians of the Isthmus of Panama, about the River Chepo.

In consequence of heavy floods in the river Chagres having washed away part of the railway-bridge, at Barbacoas,i I could only get as far as the bridge by rail, afterwards by canoe to Cruces, then by mule to Panama, through dense tropical vegetation, and by caneiones or roads something like a very narrow railway cutting, caused by continual traffic for the last years in one track. In vain one searched for the huts of the Indian, they have been re- placed by " Yankee hotels!

I saw some Darien Indians at Panama, fine looking fellows and not very dark ; they went about nearly naked, and the general opinion is, that the white man is not safe in their wilds. It is said that the word Panama means a place abounding in fish.

Tubanamawas the name of a chief who ruled about here at the time of the conquest. There are three sorts : one, the bridge of bejucos hgneous cordage , the true suspension bridge; the second, thetarabita of one rope, for slinging passengers ; the third, called tarabita also, of two ropes, for sHnging animals.

In Chile, the swinging bridges are made of hide ropes — such as is seen at Santa Rosa de los Andes. Skinner's work is a translation of the more prominent articles of the " Merourio Peruano. Hoadley, president of the Panama railway company, to Mr. The Panama railway is forty-seven and a half miles long. Passenger trains run over it in three hours ; goods trains in five.

During the first four years , passengers passed; upwards of thirty-four millions sterling of gold, and of silver nearly six millions, was conveyed across it. Almost all the indigo and cochineal is now sent over the Panama railway, reaching England in less than thirty days ; while, if sent round Cape Horn, it would take four months.

It has reduced the passage between England and British Colombia from six months to forty days, and its advantages to the trade of the west coast of America is incalculable, in conjunction with the West India Mail and Pacific Steam Navigation Companies, both lines possessing most efficient steamers ; indeed, they may be called floating hotels.

Although the Australian trade is chiefly in English hands, yet the United States ships, with a million tons of freight, sailed, in , for Australia. This shows the vast importance of the Panama route to the Pacific and Australia. The existence of good coal at Vancouver's Island, for the use of steamers, is most important. Ceari and Euna. The British government discouraged the overtures which were made to them, and suffered the continsjent prospect to be abandoned.

Years afterwards, citizens of the United States performed the great work of a railway. Trantwine in describing his surveys of the Atrato river, reports that a ship canal is out of the question. Repeated aggressions of the buccaneers and others in this auriferous district, where abundance of gold was procured by black slave labour, after the aborigines had been diminished in numbers by oppressive cruelties, induced Spain to close and abandon the mines, for a time, early in the 18th century.

Even those famous ones in the mountains of Espiritu Santo, near Cana, from which alone more gold went through Panama in a year, than from all the other mines of America put together. Careta governed the gold district of Coyba, and gave his daughter to Balboa.

Ponca was the name of another chief, at war with Careta. Comagre was a powerful chief, his dwelling was a hundred and fifty paces in length, and eighty in breadth, founded upon great logs, sur- rounded by a stone wall ; the upper part was of wood work, curiously interwoven and wrought with such beauty as to cause surprise and ad- miration. In a secret part of the building, Comagre preserved the bodies of his ancestors, wrapped in mantles of cotton, richly wrought and interwoven with pearls, gold and certain stones, held precious by the natives.

Comagre's son gave the Spaniards much gold, and informed Balboa of the Pacific Ocean. Balboa went in search of the golden tliere. Same author in voyage of the Herald, I. Prevost, R. Journal," I was in Panama when Capt. In the town library, at Nuremburg, is preserved a globe, made by John Schoner, in It is remark- able that the passage through the Isthmus of Darien, so much sought after in later times, is, on tliis old globe, carefully delineated. Journal," , The temple was not found, but from an abandoned village he gathered jewels and pieces of gold.

The chief Abibeyba reigned over a region of marshes and shallow lakes. Balboa, on his journey across Darien, was told by Ponca that the Pacific Ocean was called the great Pechry. The chief, Quaraqua, and his people were sacrificed by the Spaniards, and their village plundered of gold and jewels.

On the 26th Sep- tember, , Balboa first beheld the Pacific Ocean ; he then passed through the country of the chief, Chiapes, who gave him five hundred pounds weight of gold. On the 29th, St. Michael's day, Balboa took a banner, upon which was painted the Virgin and Child and the arms of Castile and Leon, then drawing his sword, he marched into the sea, and waving his banner took possession of the seas and lands from the Arctic to the Antartic poles.

Balboa then fell in with the chief, Tiiraaco, who gave him pearls and gold, and here he was again informed of Peru. Teaochan conciliated the Spaniards by gifts of pearls and gold. Poncra, supposed to be rich, and not yielding, was torn to pieces by bloodhounds.

Balboa took Tubanama prisoner, who gave as his ransom armlets and jewels of gold to the value of crovras. On Pizarro's first journey across the Isthmus, the names of the Caciques, Tatibra, Chucuma, Chiruca and Biru are mentioned, and the chief of Isla Eica gave him a basket filled with pearls ; one weighed twenty-five carats, another three drachms, and the size of a muscadine pear. Sinu ; on the banks of the Carare, a branch of the Magdalena ; at Conejo, below Honda ; also near Bogota, and is used at Mr.

Wilson's iron works. Captain Fitzroy ascertained the position of the concealed mines of Cana. Between Panama and Pacora, the gold dust collected was twenty-two carats fine. Near S. Journfil," ' S, American Comp. Report, London, , 30 Spaniard from Lima once extracted a large block of gold. Major Doss, in , found gold in all tte streams of the Chepo, each pan full of earth yielding from twenty-five to thirty cents. One person, in a day, worked out five ounces. The following is from Bertho]4 Seemann.

It is only in Western Veraguas that traces of a more civilized people are found. These parts were inhabited by a numerous tribe, the Dorachos, where stiU. At Caldera, a few leagues from the town of David, lies a granite block, knovm to the country-people as the " Piedra pintal," or painted stone.

It is fifteen feet high, nearly fifty feet in circumfer- ence, and flat at the top. Every part, especially the eastern side, is covered with figures. One represents a radiant sun ; it is followed by a series of heads, all with some variation, scorpions and fantastic figures.

The top and the other sides have signs of a circular and oval form, crossed by lines. The sculpture is ascribed to the Dorachos, in- tended, probably, to commemorate their annals. The characters are an inch deep ; on the weather side, however, they are nearly effaced. As they, no doubt, were all originally of the same depth, an enormous time must have elapsed before the granite could thus be worn away, and a much higher antiquity must be assigned to these hieroglyphics- than to many other monuments of America.

The tombs of the Dorachos are nu- merous ; they are of two descriptions. Soc, , Seemanu lias kindly allowed me to introduce into my work, the two drawings he made of this interesting monument. Whiting and Shuman, in their report, , on the coal formation of the Island of Muerto, near David, in Chiriqui, say they found monuments and columns covered with hieroglyphics, similar to those discovered in Yucatan, by Stephens.

Occasionally, round agates, with a hole in the centre, and small eagles have been met with. It seems to have been customary among the Doraeho tribe to wear these eagles around the neck by way of ornament. Ferdinand Columbus frequently mentions them when speaking of Veraguas and the adjacent Mosquito shore.

Several have been found in the last few years ; most of them measure from wing to wing, about four inches. Tombs of the second class are more frequent, they consist of a heap of large pebbles, from three to four feet in height, and descending as much below the surface ; no vases or ornaments are found in these graves, but always one or more stones for grinding Indian corn, made like most of the vessels, with three legs.

Bodies have been met with, which, at the slightest touch, crumbled into dust. The in- habitants of Alenje speak of other remarkable remains in the northern Cordillera, one of which is said to be a rocking-stone. As there are supposed to be many thousands of these graves equally wealthy, hundreds of persons had gone thither, and thousands of dollars worth had been taken out and sent to Panama.

Desceiption or Gold Images eeom the Chieiqtti Hxtacas. A bat, with outspread wings and legs, having a dragon-like head, surmounted by four horns, curling inwards, of the purest gold, and weighed six ounces. Smith, " Geogr, Soc. Journal," p. The aborigines never failed to leave valuable remains in their burial places or guacalis.

This region contains a great number of such old graves, the burial-places of a once powerful tribe, not migratory. Many of these guacalis have been opened and found to contain images of birds, beasts and trinkets of gold. I had the pleasure to assist Mr. Smith and Dr. McDowall to draw up this paper, and we laid down the district in which these recent discoveries have been made, in a line running east from the Bay of Guanabano to the Cordillera, and caE it a region abounding in.

Indian antiquities. At Charco Azul, on the coast, are indications of gold and copper at Punta Banco. An idol of hideous and obscene conception, with legs and arms extended ; the head flat, having a fan-like crown at the back, a wide open mouth, and a hooked nose, under which curls something like the latest form of moustache. This weighed about two ounces, and was of pure gold.

The accounts we continue to receive of the wealth of the huacas, in golden images, are every day growing more wonderful. A bat has been found of very fine gold and great weight ; also a " gold woman. The gold is contained in earthen vessels, by the side of the body. The ground where the huacas are is covered with trees, and it was by the falling of a large tree, growing out of the top of a mound, that the deposits were discovered. The roots of the tree took with them the earth and mason- work of one of the mounds, leaving the gold exposed, which was accidentally seen by a man when passing close to it.

Many of these golden objects reached London, but soon found their way into the melting pot. In November, this year, Messrs. The plates appeared to be alloyed with silver, and pro- bably used as breast plates. See Seemann Toy. BoUaert's Antig;-. Hnaca Mayo, or Sacred Parrot. Piama, of Groaiun. Cliiriqiii, 33 gold of low standard, an alloy with copper, or a natural metal, rudely shaped like eagles.

An Indian had an eagle in gold worth twenty-two ducats. Seeing the great value whicli the strangers set upon the metal, they assured them it was to be had in abundance within two days journey. Thirteen leagues from the Gulf of Nicoya is Carabizi, where the same language was spoken as at Chiriqui. The country on the Pacific, in the same latitude with Chiriqui, was called Cabiores, and next to it was the province of Durucaca.

A portion of their descendants may yet be found in the wretched Moscos or Mosquitos, little Moscos , " who, by a brazen fraud, are attempted to be passed off upon the world as a sovereign nation. As there are Carib affinities with the Moscas or Muiscas of Bogota, these, I think, may have, in early times, come to the coast of N. Granada, and have been the conquerors of the nations, who built at Tunja, or the more ancient Timana.

D 34 gestion, and inquire whether there is really any relationship between the languages of Peru and Central America. The Eagle, in Chorotegan, is called Mooncayo. I am rather surprised that larger numbers of monuments, some of more ancient nations than those first seen by the Spaniards, have not been met with. Perhaps dense tropical forests cover many such re- mains, and are awaiting the footsteps of the emigrant or the enthusias- tic antiquarian explorer.

Eivero and Tchudi, '' Antiguedades Peruanas," plate xli. Plate xxxiii. Humboldt gives a head engraved on green quartz coloured by oxide of nickel of the Muiscas. It is perforated, and probably done. Jomard, in Bulletin de la Societe de Greographie, Paris, If such be the case, it would be interesting. From what I can learn, the department of Junin, in Peru, deserves careful investigation.

I have noticed something of this sort on the skin mantles of the Comanches in Texas. The researches were made by Senor Velez de Barrientos. He went in search of them in June, Some of these columns were oval, like those of Eamiriqui see further on , and had notches at the ends, showing they had been dragged from a quarry. Pour hundred yards from the 13 columns he found the main ruins, composed of cylindrical columns, some 29 in number, well finished, fixed in the earth, and occupying 45 yards in length E.

These are, by their lightness and elegance, a great contrast with the 13 columns before mentioned ; some of these looked as if they had been worked on their sides. The ground on which these ruins stand may be about two miles in extent, and had been the site of a city, and, in all probability, of a nation much more ancient than the Muiscas.

Acosta : The Muisoas had temples to the sun with stone columns, remains of which have been discovered in the valley of Leiva. Humboldt, Aspects, II. Mulsca is said to mean man, and it is a compound word. Mu signifies the body, isca five, or body of five points or extremities as legs, arms, head. At this spot the ancient inhabitants may have adored the rising sun.

Our explorer then went by Boyaca to Ramiriqui to examine the large columns Boyaca is a few miles S. At a short distance from the river of Eamiriqui, he found three large eliptical columns laying on the ground, one 7i yards in length ; at their extremities were notches to aid in hauling them from the quarry. Another column was 4j yards long, not cylindrical, but with several sides.

The curate of Eamiriqui took Velez to another part of the parish were there are five or six similar columns. Acosta wrote to Velez that it was said the great stones, four leagues from Eaquira between Moni- quira and Grachantiva had been takeii at the time of the conquest to the plain of Tunja, where the Indians were constructing a temple.

This Velez does not believe. The stones seen at Leiva and Eamiriqui are of Asperon, a sort of whet-stone. Velez's opinion is, that this country was anciently inhabited by a more civilized people than those found by the Spaniards. At the conquest the Spaniards only found hereabouts the Pijados, Pantagosos and other tribes, who, al- though brave, were barbarous. We cannot attribute to these the construc- which may have been the name of a pavtioular family or tribe, or the expresaion for a body of five parts, and they concluded that aU the people of the country bore the name of Muiaea.

He observes that he does not find the country in question was called by a generic name, Tunja only was known as the country of Yravaoa, but in the plain now called Bogota there did not eidst a common name, because the Zipas who had been subjected to the chief of Tunja, had thrown off the yoke about sixty years before the conquest, during which time the Zipas had extended their dominions by force of arms.

Another proof of ancient origin, and that this part of the country was well populated, in Antioquia, in the Canton of Santa Eosa, Velez's parents had occasion to dig ; it was through granitic debris, and, at eight yards depth, a thick bed of well preserved trees was met with, particularly the oaks, and like the forest above.

Under this bed of trees, buried by inundations, was discovered an ancient weapon, the macana, of palm wood, two yards long, one end like a lance, the other a narrow blade like a sword, with curious carvings : this was given to a Dr. Jervis, who sent it to England.

Velez describes a cavern used as a burial place. It is situated iu the direction of Gachantiva, Canton of Leiva, near the copper mines of Moniquira. Not long since a man belonging to the smelting works, while chasing a fox with a little dog, the fox and the dog disappeared through a hole. The man began to enlarge the opening to rescue his dog ; some stones being cleared away, a cavern was discovered full of mummies, clothing and other objects. At the entrance of the cavern one of these mummies was sitting on a low wooden seat, with a bow and arrow, in the attitude of defending the place ; it was said that this mummy, when first seen, had a crown of gold on its head.

The cavern was explored ; many objects in gold were taken from the mummies, also cloths of fine cotton, in a good state of preservation ; some of these were worn by the present inhabitants, and used for their mules.

Velez arrived there in June, ; at the mouth of the cavern he saw bones of the mummies that had been thrown outside. The cavern had been dug in a calcareous rock He saw, taken from this tomb, in the possession of Dr. Garcia, curate of Guateque, emeralds ; one large, and in the rough, the others somewhat worked.

He succeeded in getting the low wooden seat, a bust iu terra cotta, pieces of mantles, a bone collar artistically worked, two little figures of animals in gold, ear-rings of tombag,i in good taste, the skull of a deer, its horns covered with black beeswax, which led him to suppose that this wax was used as a preservative, and it was possible that this wax was also used to embalm the bodies. Since then was found in the ravine of San Diego, near Bogota, another calendar, now in the possession of Velez ; it is small, long, squared, and of basalt, with similar signs to ' A mixture of gold with copper, probably guanin.

Velez mentions, that his collection con- tains five such pentagonal stones, idols, collars and other ornaments, in hard stone and gold, mummy cloth, printed in colours and rich in design, probably from Lieva. General Lopez, during his presidency , was most instru- mental in giving freedom to the negro, also causing all religious sects the public use of their rites and ceremonies. My old fellow traveller in Texas, A. Snider, also knew General Lopez in Paris.

He gives the following from conversations with him. A short distance from this cavern General Lopez has made excavations, and from the depth of two to five metres has extracted colossal statues, of great beauty, representing horses! Near to this spot was discovered a large stone table, which fifty men could scarcely lift : this table was well polished, on four feet in the form of paws, coming from a central pillar.

Upon some of these monuments are still to be seen remains of inscriptions hieroglyphics. The Indians had idols of gold and silver. It was a hot and unhealthy place. He speaks of the Nieva nation, the Anatagoimas and Coyamas, as principal tribes, numerous, alert, and brave; thev, however, became violent enemies of the Spaniards, and even dictated terms to them.

There are specimens of pottery, from N. Virginian, but smaller, is common in K. The gold of these figures is of low- standard, containing copper, and probably some silver. Is this a natural form of the gold, or has it been alloyed by the natives? Columbus procured, at Paria, plates of gold, of low standard, called guanin, or gianin, which class of metal was known as far as Honduras.

It was assayed in Spain, and found to consist of sixty-three gold, fourteen silver, nine copper. My friend, Don Liborio Duran, of N. This country was well peopled at the period of the conquest. The natives clothed in cotton mantles, were rich and industrious, and the Chief was borne on a litter covered with gold.

Acosta, On the Cauca, about Cali and Vijgea, Holton, , describes huacas or graves. Some are square pits, excavated in the ground, covered over first with logs and then with earth. Others have side excavations, and very often small passages running from one to another.

Bones and relics are found in them ; but I find very few of these in the hands of people here. They are diligently hunted for gold. A man who has a passion for this and it very naturally becomes a mental infirmity , is called a guaquero, or Indian grave hunter. Tumbaga, or pueacuri bad gold , is an alloy of gold and copper. It is found in a natural state in the mines of Patia de Popayau and Tillonaco de Loja. This G-uanin is first mentioned by Columbus as forming the ornament of a chief, when coasting along the south side of Jamaica, in In , Columbus, when on the Mosquito coast : " there was no pure gold to be met with here, all their ornaments were of guanin ; but the natives assured the Adelantado that in proceeding along the coast, the ships would soon arrive at a country whore gold was in abundance," p.

On the coast of Veragua pure gold was met with for the first time. Velasco, ui. When the destruction of the Spaniards is detailed. See my Obs. Jour- nal," Duran's father became com- padre, or godfather to the daughter of a chief, in whose family it was be- lieved the secret was known. The child was induced to become an inmate of the Diiran family, and on being questioned, promised, but unwillingly, to lead her friends to the spot.

The journey was commenced, and on arriving, as it is supposed, near to the place, the child became sad and deaf to further entreaties to proceed; she refused food for several days, and the party, fearing the child would be starved, returned, but the little girl died not long afterwards. He also says, that the ancient Indians, of Nieva,- used hieroglyphics and characters, t-ut in relief on stone, many of which monuments are still to be seen, especially at Piedra Pintada the engraved stone , and that he himself saw there large stones, full of hieroglyphics, figures of animals, branches of flowers, and other strange characters of various angles, figures that appeared to be numerals ; these, as well as those at Timana, are in the old country of Popayan, but Velasco says nothing about the ruins of Timana.

Here skeletons were preserved in mapires, or baskets of palm leaves. Besides the mapires were found urns of half-burnt clay, which appeared to contain the bones of entire families. The larger of these urns were about three feet high and nearly six feet long, of a pleasing oval form 1 His. These ornaments are similar to those that cover the walls of the Mexican Palaces at Mitla. The following on the antiquities of N. Granada, I have trans- lated from the beautiful work of Eivero and Tschudi, " Antiguedades Peruanas," published at Vienna, In Dr.

Hawk's English trans- lation of this work, , he has omitted what appertains to N, Granada. In the frontispie. In reference to plate xxxix, they observe, as but few examples of the antiquities of the Muiscas have been published, these are offered, say of the times of Bochica.

They have a distinct type compared with the Incarial. There is no tradition as to the history of these statues. Plate xL, a stone statue, also form of an animal. Plate iiil. Upon the central column are two stones. On the two front columns are engraved figures of the sun and moon. The table appears to have been used by the Muiscas for the sacrifice of offerings to their deities, and is found among the ruins of Timana.

Rivero wrote a small work, " Antiguedades Peruanas," published in Lima, , at p. Atlas of Eivero and Tschudi, Antig. Rirero obtained it at Tunja. Thus I cannot but suppose that he was also at Timana, and made sketches of the stone statues, as well as the sacrificial table. At San Augustin, and in the forest of Laboyas and Timana, there are columns, idols, altars, images of the sun, and other evidences of the former existence there of a great nation now extinct.

American Go's pamphlet, London, Velasco does not advert to these important remains, but he does to those of Nieva. I now communicate some observations in regard to the history of the Muiscas, to explain what concern their computation of time, by in- terpreting certain signs which I have investigated.

This interpretation is founded on a knowledge of the customs, history, idolatry and language of the Muiscas. The language, although it has been of use to mg, has given me much trouble ; for, at the present time, it is not spoken, and I have been obliged to work it out from the cartapacios small books, probably MSS. The Muiscas counted with their fingers. The monuments of N.

Granada require detailed examina- tion. Granada," Paris, The Peruvians and Cunaounas had " purely decimal system. The number 20, expressed by the word gueta house, or the time of sowing , included all the property and happiness of this nation, and here ended their numbers.

Thus having finished with one 20, they com- menced counting another 20, uniting it to the first until 20 twenties were obtained. The moon was the object of their observations and religion. This planet, on which they gazed with adoration, gave to them the idea or model for their habitations, enclosures, temples, fields, in a word, was connected with all their doings.

The various meanings of the numbers in their language, alludes to the phases of the moon, agricultural operations, and the superstitions of idolatry ; and in this way we are conducted to the formation of a calendar. The year consisted of twenty moons, and a century of twenty years ;' ' The Bakwains have a curious inability to make or put things square ; like all Bechuanas, their dwellings are made round. Duquesne has made various etymological researches on the words which de- note numbers in the Chibcha language.

He asserts, "that all these words are signi- ficant ; that all depend ou roots which relate either to phases of the moon, in its increase or wane, or to objects of agricultm-al worship. Humboldt, Views, II. See Ludewig, p. The rural year was composed of twelve Sunas, and, at the end of the third year, another month was added, a method similar to one 44 they commenced a month from the full-moon in the sign of Ubchihica.

The first aspect of the first phase was signified in Cuhupcua, and as in this symbol fell the quadrature, they gave it two ears, calling it deaf. These same symbols served to count the years, and contained a gene- ral doctrine, in regard to the sowing season. The civil year, or zocam, consisted of twenty sunas and the ritual, or sacred year of thirty-seren sunas. Five ritual years made a small cycle, and four of these a great age, equal to a real solar cycle of sixty years, an astronomical period of the same duration as one used in Oriental Asia.

See Calendar of Nicaragua and Mexico, which was of this character. Grranada, and very large ones are to be seen parti- cularly at Baranqnilia, near the mouth of the R. The frogs or matlametlo of Africa are of enormous size, when cooked look like chickens, and are supposed by the natives to faU from thunder clouds, because after a heavy thunder storm the pools, which are filled and retain water a few days, become instantly alive with this loud-croaking pugnacious game.

It would no doubt tend to perpetuate the present alliance, if we made a gift of it to France. The Maopityans or Frog Indians are a small tribe in Guiana, from mao, a frog, and pityan, people or tribe. Schomburgh on Natives of Guiana in Ethno. Journal, i. On the Orouoko were Indians, who rendered honours of divinity to toads in order to obtain rain or fair weather ; but the animals were beaten if the prayers were not promptly compUed with.

Depons, i. The Creeks and Oherokees, indeed, amongst all the Floridian nations, had a great annual festival in July or August, called Boos-ke-tau, at which they danced the Toc- co-yule-gan, or Tadpole dance, by four men and four women. The rana arunco, or land toad is called by the Araucanos of ChUe, Genoo, or lord of the waters. Molina, I. Mica, to look for, find, choose small things, means the care they should have in choosing seeds for sowing.

Muyhica, black object, represented dark and tempestuous vreather. Its root signified that plants grew, for with the benefit of rains, the seeds gave out plants. Hisca, green things, as the rains made the fields look beautiful and gay. It likewise meant to rejoice, make merry. The most forward plants in their fields, they praised in hope of their fruitfulness. Ta, enclosure for sowing. The sixth month of the season ; this corresponded to the harvest.

Cuhupcua, their granaries, have a snail shape or winding like the ear. Cuhutana, has the same root, signifies the corners of the house where the grain is deposited, the harvest. Sahuza, tail, the month, or the end of the sowings ; has allusion to the pole fixed in their calzadas the ground for describing the circle where they had their solemnities at harvest time.

Aca, two frogs, coupled. Ubchihica may aUude to their feasts. Gueta, house and field, marked with a toad at fuU length, the emblem of felicity. The Muiscas looked upon these things, as so many oracles ; they taught their children with great care the doctrine of their forefathers, and not content with these precautions, not to lose the plan for the go- vernment of the year, they marked the period by the sacrifice of many victims.

In the same way with the word suna calzada or platform , where, at sowing and harvest time, their feasts and sacrifices were held, as suna ata, suna bosa, one platform, two platforms, and thus it was that these places were like books in which were registered their doings. Twenty moons, then, made a year ; these ended, they counted another twenty, and then successively going round a circle, continuously, until concluding a twenty of twenties.

To intercalate a moon, which is requisite after the thirty-sixth moon, so that the lunar year shall cor- respond with the solar, and to guard the regularity of the seasons, was easily done. As they had in their hands the whole of the calendar ; they sowed two enclosures successively, with a sign between them, and the third with two. Upon this principle was conducted their 46 astronomy, idolatry, politics, economy and what is not leas interesting, their surveying.

We will now distribute these Muisca signs with the fingers, and this digitated table will give us all the combinations. Let us suppose that ata, which is made with the first finger, corresponds with January, the proper month for sowing. Continuing with the fingers we come to the second enclosure in Mica, intercepting Bosa, which is between Ata and Mica.

So that this enclosure is made in the thirteenth moon in respect to Ata. Proceeding with the fingers from Mica, the enclosure corresponds in Hisca, intercepting Muyhica, which is between Mica and Hisca, so that the enclosure is in the thirteenth moon. Lastly, let us run the fingers from Hisca, then the enclosure will be in Suhuza, intercepting two signs, Ta and Cuhupuca, which are be tween Hisca and Suhuza ; this is in the fourteenth moon in respect to Hisca.

This moon Cuhupcua deaf is that which is intercalated, because it is the seventeenth of the second Muisca year, which number, added to the twenty moons of the first year, produces 37, making the lunar and solar years equal, and Suhuza, becomes a true year. This intercalation, which is perpetually verified, leaving aside 37, or deaf moon, leads to a belief that between the two ordinary years, of twenty moons each, there is another hidden astronomical one of 37 moons, so that moon 38 is the true year.

The Muiscas, without under- standing the theory of this proposition, which has embarrassed many learned nations, found it necessary to add this moon at the end of each three lunar years, in consequence of the twelve anterior ones being of twelve moons, and the third of thirteen. They had thus a great faci- lity in the intercalation, following this method, and preserving the astronomical year, so that the people noted no difference in the ordi- nary years of twenty moons.

But the astronomical year and the intercalated of 37 moons, which counted for three sowings, served principally for agriculture and religion. The account was kept by their Xeques noting the epochs by particular sacrifices and en- graving them on stones, by means of symbols and figures, as is seen in a pentagon in my possession, which I will presently explain.

The Muisca century consisted of twenty intercalated years of 37 moons each year, which correspond to 60 of our years, composed of four revolutions, counting five in five, each one of which was of ten 47 Muisoa years, and fifteen of ours, until twenty were completed, in which the sign Ata returned to where it had first commenced. The first revolution was closed in Hisca, the second in Ubchihica, the third in Quihicha Hisca, and the fourth in Gueta.

The week was of three days, and was signalised by a market on the first day at Turmeque, a most important one, as may be seen by re- ference to Father Zamora. They divided the day Sua and the night Za thus : Sua-mena, the morning, from sun-rise to noon ; Sua-meca, noon till sunset ; Zasca, time for food, sunset to midnight; Cagui, midnight to sunrise, morning meal.

The founder of the Muiscas did not make the working of the calendar easy for the nation. He ordered that they should consult their chiefs ; thus the people believed the chiefs had command over the stars, and were absolute masters over good and evil. Nothing was done without the advice of the Xeques, for which they received large presents, and thus it was that these calendars were highly paid for. Care was taken to signalise the annual revolutions by notable acts.

Sowing time and harvest had their sacrifices. Each town had a causeway calzada , level and broad, commencing at the cercado, or house of the Tithua or chief, of half a mile in length, at the end of which there was a pole like a mast, to which was tied the unfortunate creature to be offered to the sun or the moon, so as to obtain an abundant harvest.

The Indians came in troops, adorned with jewels, figures of moons and halfmoons of gold, some disguised in the skins of bears, jaguars and pumas ; some with masks of gold, having tears imitated on them ; others followed whooping and laughing, dancing and jumping wildly ; others wore long tails, and arriving-at the end of the causeway, sent a shower of arrows at the victim, causing a lingering death, the blood was received in various vessels, and the barbarous proceeding termi- nated with the accustomed scenes of drunkenness.

But the victim destined to solemnize the four intercalated moons at the commencement of the century, underwent a peculiar induction. He was a youth taken from a particular town, situated in the plains, now known as those of San Juan. His ears were pierced, and he was brought up in the Temple of the Sun ; at the age of ten years our he was led out to walk, in memory of the perigrinations of Bochica, the founder, who, they believed, resided 4S in the sun, living there, in an eternal happy state of marriage with the moon, and having a brilliant family.

The youth was bought at a high price, and deposited in the Temple of the Sun until he was fifteen, at which age he was sacrificed, when his heart and entrails were torn out, and offered to that deity. The youth was called Guesa,i this means without home. Again, he was named Quihica, or door, as was Janus, or the beginning of the year, among the Eomans.

Q-ueaa signifies also month, because he in- terceded for the nation with the intercalated and deaf moon, which heard his lamentations from the earth. The people believed that the victims implored for them from within their habitations, so they sa- crificed many parrots and macaws, sometimes as many as two hundred of these birds were offered up at a time on the altars, but not before they could repeat their Muisca language. Notwithstanding all the sacrifices, the intercalated and deaf moon went on its way without any alteration in the calendar.

TKe many precautions taken by the Muisca legislator for the govern- ment of the year, made the people very attentive in its observance. It was looked upon as a divine invention, and its author as a god, who dwelt amongst the stars. Thus Bochica was placed in the sun, and his wife, Chia, in the moon, that they might protect their descendants. To Bochica was given two companions or brothers, symbolised by one body and three heads, and one heart and one soul. Bochica, from the sun, directed their agricultural operations.

The toad or frog had its place in the heavens, as a companion to the scorpion and the rest of the Egyptian animals. Not content with having deified their first legislator, they worshipped another of their heroes in the same 'calendar. This was the powerful Tomagata, one of the oldest Zaques. He had only one eye, but four ears, and a long tail, like a lion. The sun had taken from him all pro- creative power the night before his marriage, so that his brother, Tutasua should succeed him.

He was, however, so light of foot that every night he made ten journeys to Sogomosa from Tunja, visi- ting his hermits. He lived a hundred years, but the Muiscas say he lived much longer. The Indians called him the cacique rabon great tailed , His name, Tomagata, means fire that boils.

They passed this strange creature into their astrological heaven, 1 See Presoott Conq. Such was the heaven of the Muiscas, full of animals, like that of the Egyptians. Ata is a toad in the position of springing, which well characterises the beginning of the year. Aca is a toad from whose tail another is forming, symbol of thatmoon in which these animals begun existence, and their croaking announced the rainy season, and was the sign that sowing must commence.

Here is an allusion to the sign Pisces. Gueta is the toad, laying at full length, meaning abundance and felicity. To other signs they gave human characters, as we ourselves sometimes picture the sun and moon with eyes and nose. Bosa represented a nose ; mica, two open eyes ; muyhica, two closed eyes ; cuhupcua, two ears ; ubchihica, one ear. They probably wished here to give an idea of the moon's phases. Cuhupcua looks like a basket, to signify the harvest. Ta and Suhuzaare figured by the pole and cord, by which they made the circle for the plan and foundation of their houses and fields.

Hisca, the union of two figures, was the symbol of fecundity, as Gemini. They had various other significations. We have seen the Muisca calendar by means of the fingers, also en- graved on stones, by means of symbolic figures. In this country New Granada , up to the present time no one has occupied himself in working on the iconography of the Muiscas, and these few observations are the first elements of this study.

The toad is, without doubt, the symbol of the first moon of the year and century. The Indians put it amongst their divinities, and repre- sented it in various ways. When springing it corresponded to the first sign, Ata, and is thus engraved on many stones. On some stones, the toad is seen without feet, which appears to me to represent Gueta, a sign of quietude or rest, not in- fluencing agricultural operations.

Sometimes the head of the toad is united to the head of a man ; at others the body without feet, turned into an idol, with a tunic, also the tailed toad without feet. The figure I am now about to describe is a pentagon a.

The Indians, who for all things used the circle, here preferred the pentagon to signify that they spoke of five intercalated years. Omitting, then, the finger c which is on one side, they count on the finger d another three years, which, together with those of fincer b produce six.

This denotes the intercalation of quihicha ata, which succeeds the six Muisca years, as is seen in the table ; and is of much moment among the Indians, as belonging to the toad, which regulates the whole of the calendar.

The inter- calary month is not computed for the sowing, and thus they imagined it without action or movements. There is seen, on the plain part, the toad ata, which appears to signify that in both places the toad is meant. We now go to the plain or flat part b. The serpent h is a repro- duction of suhuza, and as it is laying on a sort of triangle, is the symbol of hisca, signifying that it is intercalated immediately after suhuza, in the second year, which is also figured by the two thick lines it has on the back.

As the principal end of this chronological stone is to signalise the intercalation of the sign hisca, as being the end of the first revolution of the Muisca century. For greater clearness, these years are counted in the three fingers b c d , together producing nine years, which give, punctually, this notable intercalation, happening at nine years and five months, as is seen in the table.

The holes of the two ears serve for the stakes they use, and the two interior hooks to fasten the door, signifies the first revolution of the century, closed in hisca. The serpent has been the symbol of time with all nations. This first revolution of the century was consecrated principally to the nuptials of the sun and moon, symbolised in the triangle, not only by the In- dians but by other nations.

The second circle expresses the Muisca years corresponding to the intercalation of each sign. The third circle expresses the order of this intercalation. Example : I wish to know in which Muisca year the sign mica the third year of twenty moons is intercalated.

See J. Acosta and Humboldt. In the diagram of circles, given by Humboldt and by J. Acosta, by some error the number 30 is given instead of The numbers in the diagram stand thus : 3, 36, E 2 52 number 19 ; and thus the intercalation of mica is in order or the 19th of the century.

The intercalation of Gueta 20, is the last of the Muisca year This is after the vulgar Muisca century of twenty moons, and seventeen years more, so that, the century ending with the astronomical revolutions of twenty intercalated years of thirty-seven moons each, three vulgar years are required to complete two vulgar centuries.

Arriving at this point, they took no account of those three vulgar years ; they did not require, for agriculture, religion, or history, begin- ning again in ata which had been arrived at in its turn , a vulgar year, the beginning of a fresh century, like the last already described. Acosta : I have wished to preserve this document without addition or correction, Note by "W". I have omitted such observations as have but little to do with the document.

In a note, J. Is the representation of another stone calendar, showing all its sides, of the original size, procured by Dr. Eoulin, in N. It is larger and more perfect than that of Duquesne, not of petro-sUex, but of Lydian Stone. Acosta gives no explanation of this engraved stone calendar. What I call the upper surface has a pointed figure with male human head : it may represent gueta, 20, quietude or rest, or zue, the sun. The upper aide has an oblong figure with seven angular marks : may be the tail of a serpent, emblem of time.

The lower side is a toad or frog, probably the symbol of the first moon of the year and century. The right hand side has a half female figure, may be za, the moon : under the figure an oblong with six straight lines, may be tail of ser- pent. The left hand side has two complex oblong figures, both alike, each having six straight lines, two sets six each of angular marks, a circle with three lines drawn from top to bottom, and two very small circles, I cannot ofier any explanation to this last, but it has to do with computation of time.

The underneath part e has three figures of toads or frogs, one has two sets of sis angular lines, may be the first sign, ata. In another is traced nine large angular lines and two smaller, may mean gueta or Acosta says of this green stone calendar, " supposed to be of the Chibchas. There appear always the same figures, viz. Humboldt, founding his opinion on the numeration of the Muiscas, subject to the number five and its multiples, as well as the Muisca calendar, aud observing that the pentagonal stones had 10 sculptured figures on its facets, considers that it is a calendar, thereby adopting the opinion of Duquesne.

The particulars of the six stones in my cabinet are as follows : 1. Stone irregular pentagon, with nineteen figures. It is possible that the twentieth has been rubbed out. Another pentagon rather regular, ten figures, two facets empty, or only marked, with two cross lines. Another trapezoidal, regular, has five figures.

Another stone esqusito verde is broken ; appears to have been a pentagon ; seven figures remain, but adding the three facets there woidd be ten. Two stones much worn ; their original form cannot be made out ; in these are seen some figures like those on the first described.

This examination confirms the conjecture of Humboldt, but only in relation to the No. Then the Muisca week of three days does not agree with the numbers 5 or 10, and it would only be from the number 15 and its multiples, where the divisions in 3 or in 5 could be considered. In regard to 20, we should have to go to 60 to have at one time a multiple ' M. In Chile, the swinging bridges are made of hide ropes— such as is seen at Santa Eosa de los Andes.

Skinner's work is a translation of the more prominent articles of the " Mercurio Peruano. Hoadley, president of the Panama railway company, to Mr. The Panama railway is forty-seyen and a half miles long. During the first four years , passengers passed; upwards of thirty-four millions sterling of gold, and of silver nearly six millions, was conveyed across it.

Almost all the indigo and cochineal is now sent over the Panama railway, reaching England in less than thirty days ; while, if sent round Cape Horn, it would take four months. It has reduced the passage between England and British Colombia from six months to forty days, and its advantages to the trade of the west coast of America is incalculable, in conjunction with the West India Mail and Pacific Steam Navigation Companies, both lines possessing most efficient steamers ; indeed, they may be called floating hotels.

Although the Australian trade is chiefly in English hands, yet the United States ships, with a million tons of freight, sailed, in , for Australia. This shows the vast importance of the Panama route to the Pacific and Australia. The existence of good coal at Vancouver's Island, for the use of steamers, is most important.

Ceari and Buna. The British goremment discouraged the overtures which were made to them, and suffered Uie contingent prospect to be abandoned. Years afterwards, citixens of the United States performed the great work of a railway. The scheme of a canal appears to be abandoned, although the country between the Chuqunaque and Atrato rivers is said to be level ; Mr. Trantwine in describing his surveys of the Atrato river, reports that a ship canal is out of the question.

Repeated aggressions of the buccaneers and others in this auriferous district, where abundance of gold was procured by black slave labour, after the aborigines had been diminished in numbers by oppressive cruelties, induced Spain to close and abandon the mines, for a time, early in the 18th century. Even those famous ones in the mountains of Espiritu Santo, near Cana, from which alone more gold went through Panama in a year, than from all the other mines of America put together.

Careta governed the gold district of Coyba, and gave his daughter to Balboa. Ponca was the name of another chief, at war with Careta. Comagre was a powerful chief, his dwelling was a hundred and fifty paces in length, and eighty in breadth, founded upon great logs, sur- rounded by a stone wall ; the upper part was of wood work, curiously interwoven and wrought with such beauty as to cause surprise and ad- miration. In a secret part of the building, Comagre preserved the bodies of his ancestors, wrapped in mantles of cotton, richly wrought and interwoven with pearls, gold and certain stones, held precious by the natives.

Comagre's son gave the Spaniards much gold, and informed Balboa of the Pacific Ocean. Balboa went in search of the golden there. Same author in voyage of the Herald, I. Prevost, R. Journal," I was in Panamd when Capt. In the town library, at Nuremburg, is preserved a globe, made by John Schoner, in It is remark- able that the passage through the Isthmus of Darien, so much sought after in later times, is, on tliis old globe, carefully delineated.

Journal," , The temple was Dot found, but from an abandoned village he gathered jewels and pieces of gold. The chief Abibejba reigned over a region of marshes and shallow lakes. Balboa, on his journey across Darien, was told by Ponca that the Pacific Ocean was called the great Pechry.

The chief, Quaraqua, and his people were sacrificed by the Spaniards, and their village plundered of gold and jewels. On the 26th Sep- tember, , Balboa first beheld the Pacific Ocean ; he then passed through the country of the chief, Chiapes, who gave him five hundred pounds weight of gold. On the 29th, St. Michael's day, Balboa took a banner, upon which was painted the Virgin and Child and the arms of Castile and Leon, then drawing his sword, he marched into the sea, and waving his banner took possession of the seas and lands from the Arctic to the Antartic poles.

Balboa then fell in with the chief, Tumaco, who gave him pearls and gold, and here he was again informed of Peru. Teaochan conciliated the Spaniards by gifts of pearls and gold. Poncra, supposed to be rich, and not yielding, was torn to pieces by bloodhounds. Balboa took Tubanama prisoner, who gave as his ransom armlets and jewels of gold to the value of crowns.

On Pizarro's first journey across the Isthmus, the names of the Caciques, Tutibra, Chucuma, Chiruca and Biru are mentioned, and the chief of Isla Bica gave him a basket filled with pearls ; one weighed twenty-fi? Sinu ; on the banks of the Carare, a branch of the Magdalena ; at Conejo, below Honda ; also near Bogota, and is used at Mr. Wilson's iron works. Captain Fitzroy ascertained the position of the concealed mines of Cana. Between Panama and Pacora, the gold dust collected was twenty-two carats fine.

Near S. American Comp. Beport, London, Major Doss, in , found gold in all the streams of the Chepo, each pan full of earth yielding from twenty-five to thirty cents. One person, in a day, worked out five ounces. The following is from Berthold Seemann. It is only in Western Veraguas that traces of a more civilized people are found. These parts were inhabited by a numerous tribe, the Dorachos, where still are found their remains, tombs, monuments and columns of different sizes, covered with fantastic figures, or representations of natural objects, differing entirely from either the hieroglyphics of Mexico or those of Central America.

At Caldera, a few leagues from the town of David, lies a granite block, known to the country-people as the " Piedra pintal," or painted stone. It is fifteen feet high, nearly fifty feet in circumfer- ence, and flat at the top. Every part, especially the eastern side, is covered with figures. One represents a radiant sun ; it is followed by a series of heads, all with some variation, scorpions and fantastic figures. The top and the other sides have signs of a circular and oval form, crossed by lines.

The sculpture is ascribed to the Dorachos, in- tended, probably, to commemorate their annals. The characters are an inch deep ; on the weather side, however, they are nearly effaced. As they, no doubt, were all originally of the same depth, an enormous time must have elapsed before the granite could thus be worn away, and a much higher antiquity must be.

The tombs of the Dorachos are nu- merous ; they are of two descriptions. The better sort consist of flat stones put together, resembling the coffins used in northern Europe ; they are slightly covered with mould, and earthen vases are found within; the vessels are of good workmanship, and in the shape of basins or of tripods, the legs being hollow, and containing several loose 1 Voy.

Soc, , Seemann has kindly allowed me to introduce into my work, the two drawings he made of this interesting monoment. Whiting and Shuman, in their report, , on the coal formation of the Island of Muerto, near David, in Chiriqui, say they found monuments and columns covered with hieroglyphics, similar to those discovered in Yucatan, hy Stephens. Occasionallj, rouDd agates, witli a bole in tbe centre, and small eagles have been met with.

It seems to have been customary among the Doracbo tribe to wear these eagles around the neck by way of ornament. Ferdinand Columbus frequently mentions them when speaking of Veraguas and the adjacent Mosquito shore. Several have been found in the last few years; most of them measure from wing to wing, about four inches.

Tombs of the second class are more irequent, they consist of a heap of large pebbles, from three to four feet in height, and descending as much below the surface ; no vases or ornaments are found in these graves, but always one or more stones for grinding Indian com, made like most of the vessels, with three legs. Bodies have been met with, which, at the slightest touch, crumbled into dust. The in- habitants of Alenje speak of other remarkable remains in the northern Cordillera, one of which is said to be a rocking-stone.

As there are supposed to be many thousands of these graves equally wealthy, hundreds of persons had gone thither, and thousands of dollars worth had been taken out and sent to Fanamd. Descbiption of Gold Images pbom the Chibiqfi Httacas. A bat, with outspread wings and legs, having a dragon-like head, surmounted by four horns, curling inwards, of the purest gold, and weighed six ounces.

Smith, " Gwgr, Soc. Journal," p. The aborigines never failed to leave valuable remains in their burial places or gnacahs. This region contains a great number of such old graves, the burial-places of a once powerful tribe, not migratory. Many of these guacalis have been opened and found to contain images of birds, beasts and trinkets of gold.

I had the pleasure to assist Mr. Smith and Dr. McDowall to draw up this paper, and we laid down the district in which these recent discoveries have been made, in a line running east from the Bay of G-uanabano to the Cordillera, and call it a region abounding in Indian antiquities.

We also place Las Brenas, old Indian gold mines, in a quartz formation, 16 geo. At Charco Azul, on the coast, are indications of gold and copper at Punta Banco. David, the capital of Chiriqui, is in about 8'17'N. An idol of hideous and obscene conception, with legs and arms extended ; the head flat, having a fan-like crown at the back, a wide open mouth, and a hooked nose, under which curls something like the latest form of moustache.

This weighed about two ounces, and was of pure gold. The accounts we continue to receive of the wealth of the huacas, in golden images, are every day growing more wonderful. A bat has been found of very fine gold and great weight ; also a " gold woman. These tombs are of great extent, some of them having contained many hundreds of bodies.

The gold is contained in earthen vessels, by the side of the body. The ground where the huacas are is covered vnth trees, and it was by the faUing of a large tree, growing out of the top of a mound, that the deposits were discovered. The roots of the tree took with them the earth and mason- work of one of the mounds, leaving the gold exposed, which was accidentally seen by a man when passing close to it. Many of these golden objects reached London, but soon found their way into the melting pot.

In November, this year, Messrs. The plates appeared to be alloyed with silver, and pro- bably used as breast plates. See Seemann Voy. Odd from Cbixiijui, Lay i;Sm. An Indian had an eagle in gold worth twenty-two ducats. Seeing the great value which the strangers set upon the metal, they assured them it was to be had in abundance within two days journey. Thirteen leagues from the Gulf of Nicoya is Carabizi, where the same language was spoken as at Chiriqui.

The country on the Pacific, in the same latitude with Chiriqui, was called Cabiores, and next to it was the province of Durucaca. A portion of their descendants may yet be found in the wretched Moscos or Mosquitos, little Moscos , '' who, by a brazen fraud, are attempted to be passed off upon the world as a sovereign nation.

As there are Carib affinities with the Moscas or Muiscas of Bogota, these, I think, may have, in early times, come to the coast of N. Granada, and have been the conquerors of the nations, who built at Tunja, or the more ancient Timana. D 34 gestion, and inquire whether there is really any relationship between the languages of Peru and Central America. The Eagle, in Chorotegan, is called Mooncayo.

I am rather surprised that larger numbers of monuments, some of more ancient nations than those first seen by the Spaniards, have not been met with. Perhaps dense tropical forests cover many such re- mains, and are awaiting the footsteps of the emigrant or the enthusias- tic antiquarian explorer. Eivero and Tchudi, " Antiguedades Peruanas," plate ili. Plate xxxiii. Humboldt gives a head engraved on green quartz coloured by oxide of nickel of the Muiscas.

If such be the case, it would be interesting. From what I can learn, the department of Junin, in Peru, deserves careful investigation. I have noticed something of this sort on the skin mantles of the Comanches in Texas. The researches were made by Senor Velez de Barrientos.

He went in search of them in June, Some of these columns were oval, like those of Bamiriqui see further on , and had notches at the ends, showing they had been dragged from a quarry. Pour hundred yards from the 18 columns he found the main ruins, composed of cylindrical columns, some 29 in number, well finished, fixed in the earth, and occupying 45 yards in length E. These are, by their lightness and elegance, a great contrast with the 13 columns before mentioned ; some of these looked as if they had been worked on their sides.

The ground on which these ruins stand may be about two miles in extent, and had been the site of a city, and, in all probability, of a nation much more ancient than the Muiscas. Aoosta : The Moiscas had temples to the sun with stone columns, remains of which have been discoYcred in the valley of Leiva. Humboldt, Aspects, IL, Muisca is said to mean man, and it is a compound word. Mu signifies the body, isca five, or body of five points or extremities as legs, arms, head.

At this spot the ancient inhabitants may have adored the rising sun. Our explorer then went by Boyaca to Bamiriqui to examine the large columns Boyaca is a few miles 8. At a short distance from the river of Eamiriqui, he found three large eliptical columns laying on the ground, one 7i yards in length; at their extremities were notches to aid in hauling them from the quarry. Another column was 4J yards long, not cylindrical, but with several sides.

The curate of Eamiriqui took Velez to another part of the parish were there are five or six similar columns. Acosta wrote to Velez that it was said the great stones, four leagues from Eaquira between Moni- quira and G-achantiva had been taken at the time of the conquest to the plain of Tunja, where the Indians were constructing a temple. This Velez does not believe. The stones seen at Leiva and Eamiriqui are of Asperon, a sort of whet-stone. Velez's opinion is, that this country was anciently inhabited by a more civilized people than those found by the Spaniards.

At the conquest the Spaniards only found hereabouts the Pijados, Pantagosos and other tribes, who, al- though brave, were barbarous. We cannot attribute to these the construc- which may have been the name of a particular family or tribe, or the expression for a body of five parts, and they concluded that all the people of the country bore the name of Muisca.

He observes that he does not find the country in question was called by a generic name. Tunja only was known as the country of Yravaci, but in the plain now called Bogota there did not exist a common name, because the Zipn» who had been subjected to the chief of Tunja, had thrown off the yoke about sixty years before the conquest, during which time the Zipas had extended their dominions by force of arms. Another proof of ancient origin, and that this part of the country was well populated, in Antioquia, in the Canton of Santa Bosa, Yeles's parents had occasion to dig ; it was through granitic dehris, and, at eight yards depth, a thick bed of well preserved trees was met with, particularly the oaks, and like the forest above.

Under this bed of trees, buried by inundations, was discovered an ancient weapon, the macana, of palm wood, two yards long, one end like a lance, the other a narrow blade like a sword, with curious carvings : this was given to a Dr. JTervis, who sent it to England. Yelez describes a cavern used as a burial place. It is situated in the direction of Gachantiva, Canton of Leiva, near the copper mines of Moniquidk. Not long since a man belonging to the smelting works, while chasing a fox with a little dog, the fox and the dog disappeared through a hole.

The man began to enlarge the opening to rescue his dog ; some stones being cleared away, a cavern was discovered full of mummies, clothing and other objects. At the entrance of the cavern one of these mummies was sitting on a low wooden seat, with a bow and arrow, in the attitude of defending the place ; it was said that this mummy, when first seen, had a crown of gold on its head. The cavern was explored; many objects in gold were taken from the mummies, also cloths of fine cotton, in a good state of preservation ; some of these were worn by the present inhabitants, and used for their mules.

Velez arrived there in June, ; at the mouth of the cavern he saw bones of the mummies that had been thrown outside. The cavern had been dug in a calcareous rock He saw, taken from this tomb, in the possession of Dr. Garcia, curate of Guateque, emeralds ; one large, and in the rough, the others somewhat worked. Since then was found in the ravine of San Diego, near Bogota, another calendar, now in the possession of Yelez ; it is small, long, squared, and of basalt, with similar signs to 1 A mixture of gold with copper, probablj guanin.

Velez mentions, that his collection con- tains five such pentagonal stones, idols, collars and other ornaments, in hard stone and gold, mummy cloth, printed in colours and rich in design, probably from Lieva. General Lopez, during his presidency , was most instru- mental in giving freedom to the negro, also causing all religious sects the public use of their rites and ceremonies. My old fellow traveller in Texas, A. Snider, also knew General Lopez in Paris. He gives the following from conversations with him.

A short distance from this cavern xeneral Lopez has made excavations, and from the depth of two to five metres has extracted colossal statues, of great beauty, representing horses! The Indians had idols of gold and silver. It was a hot and unhealthy place. He speaks of the Nieva nation, the Anatagoimas and Coyamas, as principal tribes, numerous, alert, and brave; they, however, became violent enemies of the Spaniards, and even dictated terms to them.

There are specimens of pottery, from N. Ghnnada, in the Moseom of Practical G-eology. Virginian, but smaller, is common in N. The gold of these figures is of low standard, containing copper, and probably some silver. Is this a natural form of the gold, or has it been alloyed by the natives?

Columbus procured, at Paria, plates of gold, of low standard, called guanin, or gianin, which class of metal was known as far as Honduras. It was assayed in Spain, and found to consist of sixty-three gold, fourteen silver, nine copper. My friend, Don Liborio Duran, of N. This country was well peopled at the period of the conquest. The natives clothed in cotton mantles, were rich and industrious, and the Chief was borne on a litter covered with gold. Aoosta, On the Cauca, about Cali and Vijges, Holton, , describes huacas or graves.

Some are square pits, excavated in the ground, ooveved over first with logs and then with earth. Others have side excavations, and very often small passages running from one to another. Bones and relics are found in them ; but I find very few of these in the hands of people here. They are diligently hunted for gold. A man who has a passion for this and it very naturally becomes a mental infirmity , is called a guaquero, or Indian grave hunter.

It is found in a natural state in the mines of Fatia de Popayan and Villonaeo de Loja. On the coast of Veragua pure gold was met with for the first time. Acosta, Velasco, iiL When the destruction of the Spaniards is detailed. See my Obs. Jour- nal," Duran's father became com- padre, or godfather to the daughter of a chief, in whose family it was be- lieved the secret was known. The child was induced to become an inmate of the Duran family, and on being questioned, promised, but unwillingly, to lead her friends to the spot.

The journey was commenced, and on arriving, as it is supposed, near to the place, the child became sad and deaf to further entreaties to proceed; she refused food for several days, and the party, fearing the child would be starved, returned, but the little girl died not long afterwards. On the route from! Here skeletons were preserved in mapires, or baskets of palm leaves. Besides the mapires were found urns of half-burnt clay, which appeared to contain the bones of entire families.

These ornaments are similar to those that cover the walls of the Mexican Palaces at Mitla. The following on the antiquities of N. In Dr. Hawk's English trans- lation of this work, , he has omitted what appertains to Nc Grranada. In the frontispiece of the Spanish edition are figures in gold, said to be of the Muiscas, found at Timand, one represents an owl with a serpent in its mouth, another a face with large canine teeth, like the canine teeth in the statues of Timana, of much better workmanship though apparently of an earlier date than those I have described from Antioquia.

In reference to plate xxzix, they observe, as but few examples of the antiquities of the Muiscas have been published, these are offered, say of the times of Bochica. They have a distinct type compared with the Incarial. There is no tradition as to the history of these statues. Plate xl. Plate iiil.

Upon the central column are two stones. On the two front columns are engraved figures of the sun and moon. The table appears to have been used by the Muiscas for the sacrifice of offerings to their deities, and is found among the ruins of Timana. Eivero obtained it at Tunja. Thus I cannot but suppose that he was also at Timana, and made sketches of the stone statues, as well as the sacrificial table. American Go's pamphlet, London, The first aspect of the first phase was signified in Cuhupcua, and as in this symbol fell the quadrature, they gave it two ears, calling it deaf.

These same symbols served to count the years, and contained a gene- ral doctrine, in regard to the sowing season. The civil year, or zocam, consisted of twenty sunss and the ritual, or sacred year of thirty-seven sunas. Five ritual years made a small cycle, and four of these a great age, equal to a real solar cycle of sixty years, an astronomical period of the same duration as one used in Oriental Asia.

See Calendar of Nicaragua and Mexico, which was of this character. G-ranada, and very large ones are to be seen parti- cularly at Baranquilla, near the mouth of the B. The frogs or matlametlo of Africa are of enormous size, when cooked look like chickens, and are supposed by the natives to fall from thunder clouds, because after a heavy thunder storm the pools, which are filled and retain water a few days, become instantly alive with this loud-croaking pugnacious name.

It would no doubt tend to perpetuate the present alliance, if we made a gift of it to France. The Maopityans or Frog Indians are a small tribe in Gl-uiana, from mao, a frog, and pityan, people or tribe. Schomburgh on Natives of Guiana in Ethno. Jouma], i. On the Oronoko were Indians, who rendered honours of divinity to toads in order to obtain rain or iaie weather ; but the animals were beaten if the prayers were not promptly complied with.

Depons, i. The Creeks and Cherokees, indeed, amongst all the Floridian nations, had a great annual festival in July or August, called Boos-ke-tau, at which they danced the Toe- co-yule-gan, or Tadpole dance, by four men and four women. Molina, i. Mica, to look for, find, choose small things, means the care they should have in choosing seeds for sowing. Muyhica, black object, represented dark and tempestuous weather. Its root signified that plants grew, for with the benefit of rains, the seeds gave out plants.

Hisca, green things, as the rains made the fields look beautiful and gay. It likewise meant to rejoice, make merry. The most forward plants in their fields, they praised in hope of their fruitfulness. Ta, enclosure for sowing. The sixth month of the season; this corresponded to the harvest. Guhupcua, their granaries, have a snail shape or winding like the ear. Cuhutana, has the same root, signifies the comers of the house where the grain is deposited, the harvest.

Sahuza, tail, the month, or the end of the sowings ; has allusion to the pole fixed in their calzadas the ground for describing the circle where they had their solemnities at harvest time. Aca, two frogs, coupled. Ubchihica may allude to their feasts. G-ueta, house and field, marked with a toad at full length, the emblem of felicity. The Muiscas looked upon these things, as so many oracles; they taught their children with great care the doctrine of their forefathers, and not content with these precautions, not to lose the plan for the go- vernment of the year, they marked the period by the sacrifice of many victims.

In the same way with the word suna ealzada or platform , where, at sowing and harvest time, their feasts and sacrifices were held, as suna ata, suna bosa, one platform, two platforms, and thus it was that these places were like books in which were registered their doings. Twenty moons, then, made a year ; these ended, they counted another twenty, and then successively going round a circle, continuously, until concluding a twenty of twenties.

To intercalate a moon, which is requisite after the thirty-sixth moon, so that the lunar year shall cor- respond with the solar, and to guard the regularity of the seasons, was easily done. As they had in their hands the whole of the calendar ; they sowed two enclosures successively, with a sign between them, and the tiiird with two. Upon this principle was conducted their 46 astronomy, idolatry, politics, economy and what is not less interesting, their surveying. Let us suppose that ata, which is made with the first finger, corresponds with January, the proper month for sowing.

Continuing with the fingers we come to the second enclosure in Mica, intercepting Bosa, which is between Ata and Mica. So that this enclosure is made in the thirteenth moon in respect to Ata. Proceeding with the, fingers from Mica, the enclosure corresponds in Hisca, intercepting Muyhica, which is between Mica and Hisca, so that the enclosure is in the thirteenth moon.

Lastly, let us run the fingers from Hisca, then the enclosure will be in Suhuza, intercepting two signs, Ta and Cuhupuca, which are be tween Hisca and Suhuza ; this is in the fourteenth moon in respect to Hisca. This intercalation, which is perpetually verified, leaving aside 37, or deaf moon, leads to a belief that between the two ordinary years, of twenty moons each, there is another hidden astronomical one of 37 moons, so that moon 38 is the true year.

The Muiscas, without under- standing the theory of this proposition, which has embarrassed many learned nations, found it necessary to add this moon at the end of each three lunar years, in consequence of the twelve anterior ones being of twelve moons, and the third of thirteen.

But the astronomical year and the intercalated of 37 moons, which counted for three sowings, served principally for agriculture and religion. The account was kept by their Xeques noting the epochs by particular sacrifices and en- graving them on stones, by means of symbols and figures, as is seen in a pentagon in my possession, which I will presently explain.

The Muisca century consisted of twenty intercalated years of 37 moons each year, which correspond to 60 of our years, composed of four revolutions, counting five in five, each one of which was of ten 47 Muisca years, and fifteen of onn, until twenty were completed, in which the sign Ata returned to where it had first commenced.

The week was of three days, and was signalised by a market on the first day at Turmeque, a most important one, as may be seen by re- ference to Father Zamora. They dirided the day Sua and the night Za thus : Sua-mena, the morning, from sun-rise to noon ; Sua-meca, noon till sunset ; Zasca, time for food, sunset to midnight; Cagui, midnight to sunrise, morning meaL The founder of the Muiscas did not make the working of the calendar easy for the nation.

He ordered that they should consult their chiefs ; thus the people beliered the chiefs had command over the stars, and were absolute masters over good and evil. Nothing was done without the advice of the Xeques, for which they received large presents, and thus it was that these calendars were highly paid for. Care was taken to signalise the annual revolutions by notable acts. Sowing time and harvest had their sacrifices. The Indians came in troops, adorned with jewels, figures of moons and halfmoons of gold, some disguised in the skins of bears, jaguars and pumas : some with masks of gold, having tears imitated on them ; others followed whooping and laughing, dancing and jumping wildly ; others wore long tails, and arriving at the end of the causeway, sent a shower of arrows at the victim, causing a lingering death, the blood was received in various vessels, ami the barbarous proceeding termi- nated with the accustomed scenes of drunkenness.

It appears that this procession was symbolic of the calendar, and bad it been depicted, it would have aided inquiry or a better knowledge of the signs and the characters attributed to them. But the victim destined to solemnize the four intercalated moons at the commencement of the century, underwent a peculiar induction. He was a youth taken from a particular town, situated in the plains, now known as those of San Juan.

His ears were pierced, and he was brought up in the Temple of the Sun ; at the age of ten years our he was led out to walk, in memory of the perignnations of Bochica, the founder, who, they believed, resided 48 in the sun, living there, in an eternal happy state of marriage with the moon, and having a brilliant family. The youth was bought at a high price, and deposited in the Temple of the Sun until he was fifteen, at which age he was sacrificed, when his heart and entrails were torn out, and offered to that deity.

Again, he was named Quihica, or door, as was Janus, or the beginning of the year, among the Homans. Guesa signifies also month, because he in- terceded for the nation with the intercalated and deaf moon, which beard his lamentations from the earth.

The people believed that the victims implored for them from within their habitations, so they sa- crificed many parrots and macaws, sometimes as many as two hundred of these birds were offered up at a time on the altars, but not before they could repeat their Muisca language. Notwithstanding all the sacrifices, the intercalated and deaf moon went on its way without any alteration in the calendar. The many precautions taken by the Muisca legislator for the govern- ment of the year, made the people very attentive in its observance.

It was looked upon as a divine invention, and its author as a god, who dwelt amongst the stars. Thus Bochica was placed in the sun, and his wife, Chia, in the moon, that they might protect their descendants. To Bochica was given two companions or brothers, symbolised by one body and three heads, and one heart and one soul. Bochica, from the sun, directed their agricultural operations. The toad or frog had its place in the heavens, as a companion to the scorpion and the rest of the Egyptian animals.

Not content with having deified their first legislator, they worshipped another of their heroes in the same calendar. This was the powerful Tomagata, one of the oldest Zaques. He had only one eye, but four ears, and a long tail, like a lion. The sun had taken from him all pro- creative power the night before his marriage, so that his brother, Tutasua should succeed him.

He was, however, so light of foot that every night he made ten journeys to Sogomosa from Tunja, visi- ting his hermits. He lived a hundred years, but the Muiscas say he lived much longer. The Indians called him the cacique rabon great tailed. His name, Tomagata, means fire that boils. They passed this strange creature into their astrological heaven. On the Sacrifice of a beautiful youth to Tezcat- lepoca, the soul of the world.

Such was the heaven of the Muiscas, full of animals, like that of the Egyptians. Ata is a toad in -the position of springing, which well characterises the beginning of the year. Aca is a toad from whose tail another is forming, symbol of that moon in which these animals begun existence, and their croaking announced the rainy season, and was the sign that sowing must commence. Here is an allusion to the sign Pisces. Gueta is the toad, laying at full length, meaning abundance and felicity.

To other signs they gave human characters, as we ourselves sometimes picture the sun and moon with eyes and nose. Bosa represented a nose ; mica, two open eyes ; muyhica, two closed eyes ; cuhupcua, two ears ; ubchihica, one ear. They probably wished here to give an idea of the moon's phases.

Cuhupcua looks like a basket, to signify the harvest. Ta and Suhuzaare figured by the pole and cord, by which they made the circle for the plan and foundation of their houses and fields. Hisca, the union of two figures, was the symbol qf fecundity, as Gemini. They had various other significations. We have seen the Muisca calendar by means of the fingers, also en- graved on stones, by means of symbolic figures. In this country New Granada , up to the present time no one has occupied himself in working on the iconography of the Muiscas, and these few observations are the first elements of this study.

The toad is, without doubt, the symbol of the first moon of the year and century. The Indiann put it amongst their divinities, and repre- sented it in various ways. When springing it corresponded to the first sign, Ata, and is thus engraved on many stones. On some stones, the toad is seen without feet, which appears to me to represent Gueta, a sign of quietude or rest, not in- fluencing agricultural operations.

Sometimes the head of the toad is united to the head of a man ; at others the body without feet, turned into an idol, with a tunic, also the tailed toad without feet. The figure I am now about to describe is a pentagon a.

The Indians, who for all things used the circle, here preferred the pentagon to signify that they spoke of five intercalated years. Omitting, then, the finger c which is on one side, they count on the finger d another three years, which, together with those of finger b produce six.

This denotes the intercalation of quihicha ata, which succeeds the six Muisca years, as is seen in the table ; and is of much moment among the Indians, as belonging to the toad, which regulates the whole of the calendar. The inter- calary month is not computed for the sowing, and thus they imagined it without action or movements.

There is seen, on the plain part, the toad ata, which appears to signify that in both places the toad is meant. We now go to the plain or flat part b. The serpent h is a repro- duction of suhuza, and as it is laying on a sort of triangle, is the symbol of hisca, signifying that it is intercalated immediately after suhuza, in the second year, which is also figured by the two thick lines it has on the back.

As the principal end of this chronological stone is to signalise the intercalation of the sign hisca, as being the end of the first revolution of the Muisca century. For greater clearness, these years are counted in the three fingers b c d , together producing nine years, which give, punctually, this notable intercalation, happening at nine years and five months, as is seen in the table.

The holes of the two ears serve for the stakes they use, and the two interior hooks to fasten the door, signifies the first revolution of the century, closed in hisca. To continue the time it was necessary to imagine that Guesa opened the door with the sacrifice already alluded to, the circumstances of which were symbolical, and related to these revolutions of the century.

The serpent has been the symbol of time with all nations. This first revolution of the century was consecrated principally to the nuptials of the sun and moon, symbolised in the triangle, not only by the In- dians but by other nations. Explanation of the diagram of circles of the Muisca year c ; The first or interior circle represents the twenty moons of the vulgar Muisca year, all of which signs are intercalated in the space of a cen- tury. The second circle expresses the Muisca years corresponding to the intercalation of each sign.

The third circle expresses the order of this intercalation. Example : I wish to know in which Muisca year the sign mica the third year of twenty moons is intercalated. See J. Acosta and Humboldt. In the diagram of circles, given by Humboldt and by J. Acosta, by some error the number 30 is giyen instead of The numbers in the diagram stand thus: 3, 36, The intercalation of Gueta 20, is the last of the Muisca year This is after the vulgar Muisca century of twenty moons, aud seventeen years more, so that, the century ending with the astronomical revolutions of twenty intercalated years of thirty-seven moons each, three vulgar years are required to complete two vulgar centuries.

A-rriving at this point, they took no account of those three vulgar years ; they did not require, for agriculture, religion, or history, begin- ning again in ata which had been arrived at in its turn , a vulgar year, the beginning of a fresh century, like the last already described.

Acosta : I have wished to preserve this document without addition or correction. Note by W. I have omitted such observations as have but little to do with the document. In a note, J. Is the representation of another stone calendar, showing all its sides, of the original size, procured by Dr. Eoulin, in N. It is larger and more perfect than that of Duquesne, not of petro-silex, but of Lydian Stone.

Acosta gives no explanation of this engraved stone calendar. What I call the upper surface has a pointed figure with male human head : it may represent gueta, 20, quietude or rest, or zue, the sun. The upper side has an oblong figure with seven angular marks : may be the tail of a serpent, emblem of time. The lower side is a toad or frog, probably the symbol of the first moon of the year and century.

The right hand side has a half female figure, may be za, the moon ; under the figure an oblong with six straight lines, may be tail of ser- pent. The left hand side has two complex oblong figures, both alike, each having six straight lines, two sets six each of angular marks, a circle with three lines drawn from top to bottom, and two very small circles, I cannot offer any explanation to this last, but it has to do with computation of time.

The underneath part e has three figures of toads or frogs, one has two sets of six angular lines, may be the first sign, ata. In another is traced nine large angular lines and two smaller, may mean gueta or Acosta says of this green stone calendar, " supposed to be of the Chibclias.

There appear always the same figures, viz. Humboldt, founding his opinion on the numeration of the Muiscas, subject to the number five and its multiples, as well as the Muisca calendar, and observing that the pentagonal stones had 10 sculptured figures on its facets, considers that it is a calendar, thereby adopting the opinion of Duquesne.

The particulars of the six stones in my cabinet are as follows : 1. Stone irregular pentagon, with nineteen figures. It is possible that the twentieth has been rubbed out. Another pentagon rather regular, ten figures, two facets empty, or only marked, with two cross lines. Another trapezoidiil, regular, has five figures. Another stone esqusito verde is bro! Two stones much worn ; their original form cannot be made out ; in these are seen some figures like those on the first described.

Then the Muisca week of three days does not agree with the numbers 5 or 10, and it would only be from the number 15 and its multiples, where the divisions in 3 or in 5 could be considered. Jomard has prepared this note : it contains the description of the objects in his cabinet connected with the Chibchas. This collection is the most complete I have seen in Europe or America ; for, independent of the stone calendar I possess, which is the most perfect known the drawing D in plate I only know of one other in N.

Granada, very much used, belonging to Dr. Quijano, of Bogota. Besides these stones, the cabinet of M. Jomard contains various drawings of idols and ornaments, vases and other utensils of the nations of N. Granada, especially from Antioquia some , which being of gold and heavy were drawn before they were melted down. Signed J. Common year. Ata Haryest. As Panama is neared and the low mountains of the Isthmus left behind, a pleasant grassy savanna is entered.

Their cabins were shaded by bananas and palms, orange and pomegranate groves, and the beautiful maize waved gracefully in the plantations. On entering Panama, black clouds rose from the horizon spreading themselves rapidly. A thunder-storm succeeded with torrents of rain, when the weary traveller drenched to the skin found shelter in the " Louisiana Hotel.

I had a letter of introduction from Mrs. Harrison Smith then in England to her brother-in-law, who located me in, perhaps, the best house in the city, for which I was most thankful. I did not find any ancient ruins here ; there are, however, some interesting modem ones ; the Jesuits' college, destroyed by fire, mo- nasteries, convents, and churches, the walls of which are covered with trees and shrubs, their descending roots breaking out the masonry.

Since the discovery of the gold regions of California, from a lifeless place, Panama has sprung into activity and opulence, added to which is the circumstance of its being the point of transit to the west coast of South America. There are here many interesting views, amongst which may be men- tioned, that of a portion of the city from the ramparts, on which there were some brass guns off their carriages, and it was said that a couple of stout lads with sticks would have no diJ0Bculty in taking the arsenal ; another good view is that of Playa Prieta, with its luxuriant 57 Tegetation nsing from the shores of the Pacific ; a third is from oppo- site the cathedral, with the Gabildo and busy Calle de la Merced to the left, and a group of buildings to the right.

Although Panama is a New Granadian city, Brother Jonathan reallj rules here; it is a lively commercial place, and its residents most obliging and hospitable, with a population of 20, souls. I saw the arrival of a large party of diggers from California and their departure for the Atlantic side ; they enjoyed themselves much after a sojourn in the gold regions.

Panama ought to be kept cleaner, for there is abundance of rain to wash it. Affcer the white population, principally foreigners, the negro element preponderates amongst the work-people and servants, who are a gay and saucy set ; they are very fond of dancing, and on mooulight nights they assemble and dance till morning, accompanied by singing, their music being on a drum made of the hollow trunk of a tree, and an instrument of bamboo filled with pebbles.

This is an expensive place, washing is charged from twelve to sixteen shillings a dozen. Formerly, when in the tropics, I wore linen clothing, but I found it more pleasant to dress in a very thin woollen shirt, trousers, and blouse of same material. If a Panama straw hat and white leather boots be added to the above, these form a most enjoyable costume, being more conducive to health than either linen or cotton, particularly if there be much rain. My kind host, Mr. Smith, invited an evening party to meet me, consist- ing of the principal merchants, consuls, gentlemen connected with the railway, editors of eight newspapers, and other notables, including Mr.

Joy, weU known for his energy and activity in afiairs connected with the Isthmus ; he has now steamers on the river Magdalena, and a great boon they must be to the country. I visited El Sefior Piece, the Panama pearl merchant. The blood-Bucking Tampiie bal is oommon in the Isthmns. One of the interesting sights of Panama is the patio or court-yard of the British consulate, piled up with bars of silver from Peru and Chile, on their way across the Isthmus.

From January 1st, to September 30th, , specie, gold-dust, and silver in bars from California, Mexico, Peru, and Chile, amounting to nearly 43,, of dollars crossed the Isthmus. Of passengers there arrived 7,, and sailed 7, My friends made a party on horseback to show me something of the surrounding country.

Having trotted over the grassy plain, we reached the hills, from the tops of which we enjoyed exquisite views of moun- tain scenery, particularly at the Losaria, where there are many country seats ; forming, with the Pacific on the west, an interesting panorama. One mile from Panami is the Cerro de Ancon, feet high : from. As I was to be at sea on the 25th, my good friends Mr.

Jones kept this as Christmas-day. I had passed a very happy time of it, and when retiring to bed, I heard bitter lamentations in an adjoining room. I enquired the cause, and found that a young lady had just died of fever, after a very short illness. I could not rest, so sallied forth, lit my cigar, found a billiard-room open, sipped some iced drinks, and, at 3, a.

Lloyd, in his observations on the Isthmus of Darien,i says, Porto-Bello is one of the hottest and most unhealthy places in the world. It was pro- posed in , by a company that required a capital of a million dollars, to bring good water, by pipes, from the river Pecora, but as yet this has not been effected ; 15 to 20 per cent, dividend was premised.

Journal, i. It had once 20, inhabitants. The Spaniards say they had been weary of the place, and determined to leave it on account of its having no harbour. The spot is now deserted, and it requires a practico or guide to find it. Some watch-towers, solidly built, an arch, two or three piers of a bridge, fragments of church and convent walls are now the only remains to be found.

On the top of the convent walls trees and. A few negroes live in the vicinity. December the 22nd, got on board the " Bogota" steamer, commanded by that excellent skipper, Captain Bloomfield, on my way south. We ran over to the island of Taboga, twelve miles distant, in search of a ship's cook, we got a black boy, for whose services we paid six pounds a month. This densely wooded island is two miles long, its highest parts feet. It is an interesting bustling place, with its habitations, hotels, caf6s and huts picturesquely scattered about.

Here the Pacific Steam Navigation Company have a gridiron and dep6t. At Taboga has resided, for forty years, a most benevolent individual well known as Dona Ana, and called the Queen of the Island ; she is a Jamaica Creole of tall and commanding appearance, and reputed to be the daughter of an English nobleman. Her attendance on sick sailors and others is above all praise, and from her knowledge of the medicinal herbs of the country she effects many a cure.

She resides with her black husband in a small hut like any other on the island. By dint of industry she had saved rather a considerable sum of money, which she enti'usted to an Englishman at Panama to invest for her, but he like a scoundrel ran off with her hard earnings ; she has, however, the blessings of many a sailor who, having been prostrated with fever, but for her care would perhaps have found a grave in Taboga.

A story is told of the land crabs of Taboga, who, about the latter part of Lent, are observed descending the hills in great numbers, they even climb over any huts that may be in their way " and join the religious procession on Q-ood-Friday. JsDuarj Tpbruar 1 B0. March April, Bod N. August Septemb October J5 HoTetnb Kainy weather predominatea, with sultry periods and much lightning and thunder, also heavy thunder storms. I found no record of earth- quakee. In Ludewig'a useful work dd the literature of the American aboriyiuiil languages, he refers to collections of words, voaibulariea and grammars ; some of these, however, areatill in M.

Igivofirstalist of worda, the result of my own reading on the subject ; other lists are i'roin T. It would appear that the Spaniards gave the name of Chibchas to the natives of the Plateau of Bogotii, in conaequence of the very frequent repetition of the word chi ; and aa muisca means man, we are left rather in ; A loQg-oon tinned earthquake wm felt at 10, p.

Acosta gave his M. His dictionary is the only one existing ; the grammar is different from that of Fray B, de Lugo : this last is very rare, printed in Madrid, The language is lost, but there are some M. The Tunja language was different from that of Bogota. Bacata, Bogota limit of cultiTated Sugamuai, Sogo- mysterious one, or land, probably from moso disappeared coun- proximity to the try. Chiminigagua the Creator. Also from a chief Bochica, Bots- of that name.

Zomi, Turma potato, yam. Bachue, Fuza- Batati sweet potato. Zipa principal chief, resi- Zue, Sua, Zupa, ding at Bogota. Gagua sun or day. Zaque another great chief. Chia, Za moon or night. Usaques lesser chiefis. TJllco, Chibia,or Guechas militarj chiefs.

Hibia supreme power. Ebaque blood of wood, name Aba strong drink, made of a chief. Nemeqaene bone of lion, a chief Neucatocoa Chibcha Bacchus. Fo, Sorra deity of boundaries of GuataviUb end of mountains. Chaquen feast of Fo. Ebate spilt blood, a chief. Cuchavira rainbow. Susa white straw country. Huayacan holy wood, very hard. Simijaca owl's beak country. Sunas sacred paths. Guegue he takes to be a Mexican word, formed by the reduplication of hue or gue, old ; huehue or guegue, literally old-old.

Called aohiote and tHe in Nicaragua. He is some- times called Quihi- ca, or the door. Indian tunic. FROM T. Cum means a stick or support. The sacred year was of 37 moons, and 20 of Suna these formed Muisca cycle, new moon. Zaga Quimi-Zaque fasting. Arracachiaesculentaof Holton. Tunja Tyrona Tamalameque name of a chief, a forge or furnace, town of the palms. Achira species of cane. Caiman alligator. M6ya cake of salt. Coc6 cocoanut. Mucura an earthen vessel. C6to goitre.

Neme bitumen. Gkilapagd terrapin. Name yam, dioscorea. Guacamajo macaw, ara glanca, a Oca oxalifl tuberosa. G-uadua large bamboo. Poyo a bench Guamhia a bag. Quina-Quina Peruvian bark tree. Iraca carloduvica palmata. Tulpas three stones, forming also called jipijape. Seemann's voy.

Near Pandi the ground rises steadily to the E. Louis Godin has a quinine fac- tory. The bark is pulverised entirely by hand, and comes from places on the mountains south of here, as nearly as 1 could ascertain. Every man keeps his ovm quina secrets. From Markham's notes on the culture of cinchona ; the varieties are C.

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Bal editor pes 14 torrent Inde, a word of affirmation, was similar to the English word indeed. The Poinciana Pulcherrima, the yellow and scarlet variety, is called Malinche the name of Cortez's Indian mistress and Guacamayo, in Hon- duras, the latter being the name given to the large red parrot, called Ara and Lapa, in other parts of Baja guaco historico torrent and Central America, a bird the Maya Indians of Yucatan seems to have considered sacred, and dedicated to the sun. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Trantwine in describing his surveys of the Atrato river, reports that a ship canal is out of the question. Bejuco deGruaco mikania guaco. This baja guaco historico torrent, on which they gazed with adoration, gave to them the idea or model for their habitations, enclosures, temples, fields, in a word, was connected with all their doings. Her attendance on sick sailors and others is above all praise, and from her knowledge of the medicinal herbs of the country she efiects many a cure.
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Johan axelsson cubase torrent Fo, Sorra torrent of boundaries of GuataviUb end of mountains. Rivero wrote a small work, " Antiguedades Peruanas," published in Lima,at p. An idol of hideous and obscene conception, with legs and arms extended ; the head flat, having a fan-like crown at the back, a wide open mouth, and a hooked nose, under which curls something like the latest form of moustache. Granada, especially from Antioquia somewhich being of gold and baja were drawn before they were melted down. Granada, Holton This country was well peopled at the period of the guaco historico.
Una serata al cinema torrent The island of Puna, when first visited by the Spaniards, had a temple, dedicated to the god of war, Tumbal, a frightful figure ; at its feet were military arms bathed in the blood of prisoners who had been sacrificed on an altar in the centre of the temple, baja guaco historico torrent was dark, and its walls covered with horrible looking paintings and sculptures. They had thus a great faci- lity in the intercalation, following this method, and preserving the astronomical year, so that the people noted no difference in the ordi- nary years of twenty moons. Ata is a toad in the position of springing, which well characterises the beginning of the year. G-ueta, house and field, marked with a toad at full length, the emblem of article source. Cara-pucho and cara-macho, are points on the coast of S. A portion of their descendants may yet be found in the wretched Moscos or Mosquitos, little Moscos" who, by a brazen fraud, are attempted to be passed off upon the world as a sovereign nation. This shows the vast importance of the Panama route to the Pacific and Australia.
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