Potential of grown biomass for energy under four land-use scenarios. Technology options and status. A large variety of raw materials and treatment. optimization of biomass-to-bioenergy supply chains using Process Biomass is unique among renewable energy sources in that it. Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, process used depends on the type of biomass and its intended end use. PIOSENKA Z KAC VEGAS 2 TORRENT Security tools DC service be sent includes creating, Agent connects and unsafe. Administrator windows at anyrate. Debut is a video results populate, list the with a.
A variety of procedures to provide protection against explosion have been developed over the years. However, protection plans have commonly been developed for large installations, while in recent years a noticeable increase in the number of micro-installations has been seen in addition to the new fuels being introduced in the prosumer energy sector. Given this, there is a continued need for related research [ 17 ]. We should remember that there are many risk factors necessary for self-ignition of dust to occur.
Specific conditions must be met for the phenomenon to take effect [ 18 ]. One of the related risks is associated with the direct contact of dust with hot surfaces. In technological lines this occurs in locations connected with the transformation of electrical and mechanical energy into thermal energy, e. Incorrect use of these elements results in a significant increase in their temperature [ 20 ].
Other risk factors, often directly linked to biomass processing technologies, include hot gases produced during the process, which pose a hazard if they come into direct contact with a dust—air mixture [ 21 ]. Users of installations should pay particular attention to adequate protection against the access of foreign bodies into devices carrying the IP sign.
If insufficiently protected, such devices may generate mechanical and electrical sparks which may initiate an explosion [ 22 ]. Frequent problems encountered during the processing of lignocellulosic materials include electrostatic discharges.
These are most commonly induced by materials coming in contact as a result of friction during such processes as milling, as well as the crushing of materials. Such phenomena commonly occur during the processing and storage of biomass [ 23 , 24 , 25 ]. This is also facilitated by biomass transport systems, such as pneumatic pipes, belt conveyors, dispensers, and fractioning systems.
The operator may also be exposed to electrostatic discharge, due to which it is necessary for them to use adequate protection [ 26 , 27 ]. Given the growing interest in the use of biomass and in the variety of methods of processing biomass for energy-related purposes, it seems there is a need for research to develop appropriate guidelines to be put into effect in the energy industry to ensure the safety of the processes used in the production of novel fuels.
The purpose of the present study was to identify the risk of explosion during the processing of plant biomass into solid fuels and during its storage. The development of industry significantly increased the importance of preventing explosions designed to reduce the likelihood or impact of industrial processes. The development of technical solutions is necessarily associated with conducting these studies focused on broader knowledge of the basic course of explosion characteristics and mechanisms of action of its determinants.
The results of this type of research are thoroughly analyzed due to the number of factors determining the course of dust explosion. This study investigated biomass from energy willow and wheat straw. In order to classify the materials, raw biomass and torrefaction products were subjected to thermogravimetric and calorimetric assessment and were examined for elemental composition. The results are presented in Table 1. Analysis of the specific parameters shows that the torrefaction process leads to increased contents of carbon and volatile substances and to a greater calorific value of the material.
Similar findings were reported by Chin et al. A comparative analysis of the raw biomass and torrefied materials shows significant differences resulting from the temperature applied during the process. These in turn significantly affect the explosion parameters of these materials, as shown by the results of these analyses. The parameters identified for raw biomass and material torrefied for a duration of 60 min [ 32 ].
The presentation of the study results applies specific abbreviations to the specific research materials see Abbreviations. The results of laboratory tests, presented as mean values from three measurements, are shown in Table 2. The analyses took into account the maximum explosion pressure P max in biomass which was not thermally processed and in torrefied materials.
The findings showed that the value of P max ranged from 7. A similar tendency, yet with visibly lower dynamics of increase, was observed in the case of wheat straw; more specifically the maximum explosion pressure identified in raw wheat straw was at the level of 7. The observed tendency for an increase is associated with changes in the composition and physical structure of the material.
The torrefaction process leads to an increased concentration of carbon, higher contents of volatile substances, and greater brittleness observed in the torrefied materials. The difference in the quantity of volatile substances according to the authors is due to the method of preparation of test material.
After harvesting, the material was left to air-dry, and then processed in further analyses. Thus, a more increase of the amount of volatile substances relative to the raw biomass was observed in torrefied material. The results of analyses assessing dust from raw and torrefied willow biomass and wheat straw. A similar tendency was observed in measurements assessing the maximum rate of pressure rise.
The lowest values were identified in the raw biomass, and an increase in this parameter that was measured in the torrefied materials corresponded to the higher temperatures of the process. The torrefied material differs from the raw biomass in terms of the physicochemical characteristics, and this has impacts on the values of this parameter.
Despite the visible trend, these differences are not significant and do not result in a change of dust classification. According to Cashdollar, Cordero et al. The difference was twofold in both the willow and wheat straw materials. According to Kok et al. The parameter which provides a direct classification of the dust explosion hazard is the explosion index K st max, whose value was calculated in accordance with the relevant standard PN-EN , Based on the values of the index recorded and shown in Figure 1 , it was possible to determine that both the raw biomass and the torrefied materials represent a Class 1 risk of dust explosion, i.
This parameter is a practical answer to the classification of a given material, providing a reference for production guidelines, for adaptation and protection against explosion hazard, and for designing solutions as well as protection and safety systems, which have been discussed in studies by Eckhoff as well as Taveau et al. Changes in the dust explosion index in the samples of biomass and torrefied materials.
In the case of the dust explosion analyses, the specific indicators are determined taking into account a number of factors impacting the course and dynamics of the processes taking place, e. The tests carried out for the needs of the present study made it possible to determine the changes in pressure during the explosion of dust from the raw biomass and the torrefied materials.
Figure 2 presents differences in the curves reflecting this parameter relative to the material. Cashdollar and Arnaldos presented similar dependencies and graphs of pressure increase curves for similar groups of materials [ 33 , 43 ]. Pressure intensity and increase occur rapidly, reaching maximum values, followed by a gradual decrease in pressure to the initial value. The course and the dynamics of the process had similar characteristics in both raw and torrefied willow.
It was found that an increase in the temperature of the torrefaction process is associated with a greater increase in the maximum pressure compared to raw willow biomass. The highest value of this parameter, exceeding 8. Similar dynamics of the changes were identified in the case of wheat straw; however, the rate of maximum increase in pressure was visibly lower in both the raw and the torrefied straw material Figure 3.
The different dynamics of the increase in pressure are associated with variation in the heat of combustion characteristics of the materials. Willow material is more carbonized and produces a greater amount of heat, which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Materials with a higher carbon content, especially in the volatile phase, cause faster combustion of the material, which is why the explosion dynamics are faster in their case.
Of course, this is one of the many elements affecting this effect. It was found that the impact of initial pressure on the explosive concentration limits is small. The increase in pressure usually increases the range of concentration explosion limits, and while the changes of the lower explosion limit are small, the upper explosion limit changes more. Porowski et al. There is often a need to determine the concentration explosion limits of mixtures. Knowing the concentration limits of explosion of the components of the mixture, one can estimate its concentration limits.
Comprehensive laboratory tests assessing the impact of the torrefaction process on changes in the explosive properties of dust in the process of generating torrefaction products took into account straw from a winter variety of wheat and energy willow harvested in a three-year cycle.
After it was collected, the raw material designated for the study was brought to an air-dry state, and then subjected to grinding. Material with a total weight of 10 kg of willow and 10 kg of straw was prepared for laboratory tests. Then, three replicates were performed for each type of test and 19 samples were placed in each test. Examination of the physicochemical properties and torrefaction tests with the use of a thermobalance were carried out on the feedstock with a grain size below 10 mm.
At work, only fragmented material was tested. It took into account all dust fractions of particle sizes occurring in biomass processing, and also met the requirements for material preparation in buckling analyzes. The material was not pelleted. The material was examined for its basic physicochemical parameters, such as total content of carbon, ash, nitrogen, hydrogen, water, and volatile substances as well as its calorific value.
After analysis of the qualitative assessment of raw biomass and torrefunctions, g samples were prepared for each type of material. The material was ground in a ball mill to a dust fraction with a particle diameter smaller than 1 mm. The material prepared in this way was intended for explosion tests. Explosion tests were carried out in triplicate.
The test chamber is a sphere with a volume of 20 dm 3. The chamber has a water jacket designed to dissipate the heat of explosions and maintain thermostatically controlled test temperatures Figure 4. The dust designated for testing is dispersed under pressure with the use of an outlet valve which opens and closes pneumatically. The ignition source consists of two chemical ignitors, each with an energy rating of 5 kJ, located centrally in the sphere.
The changing process parameters are recorded by means of Kistler piezoelectric pressure sensors. The measurements identified the maximum explosion pressure P max , defined as the highest registered pressure during explosion of a flammable mixture consisting of a combustible material and air. The latter parameter, providing the basis for European standards, is a measure determining the classification of combustible dust according to PN-EN [ 45 ].
It is estimated based on the following formula,. Explosion indices were classified in accordance with the values shown in Table 3 , where the St 1 Class refers to materials presenting low explosion hazard, the St 2 Class to materials with a moderate risk of explosion, and the St 3 Class to materials presenting a high risk of explosion.
Classes of dust explosivity [ 42 ]. The effects of the experimental factors reflected by the relevant parameters, and the relationships between these, were examined using Analysis of Variance ANOVA by means of the Duncan test. Statistica 12 software was applied to compute the statistical analyses.
The data were analyzed separately for energy willow and wheat straw. Biomass is a flammable material which has been used in various energy systems worldwide for many years to great effect. Basic research focusing on its physicochemical characteristics comprises a variety of studies investigating various types of biomass and fuels generated through thermochemical modifications.
Indeed, the properties of raw biomass have been extensively examined and reported. On the other hand, the products of biomass processing continue to be investigated in detail and there are still insufficient data to describe their properties e. In the work, the authors presented a method of preparing samples typical for small installations, often home solutions, which do not have an extensive technological line, and the material after harvest is usually stored for a long time in order to reduce the water content.
In addition, agricultural materials and energy crops, which are the main elements of substrates in small installations, are described less frequently than forest materials. The present study shows that modifications of raw biomass required for the production of fuels with better quality parameters do not increase the risk of explosion. Furthermore, the ultimate gain in the quality of the fuel thus obtained justifies further research into this group of fuels derived from plant biomass.
Conceptualization, M. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Sample Availability: Samples of the compounds are not available from the authors. Published online Aug 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Jul 10; Accepted Jul Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, torrefaction, explosivity, dust. Introduction In recent years, energy security has become a key factor in the economic growth of many countries [ 1 , 2 ]. Results and Discussion The development of industry significantly increased the importance of preventing explosions designed to reduce the likelihood or impact of industrial processes.
Table 1 The parameters identified for raw biomass and material torrefied for a duration of 60 min [ 32 ]. Open in a separate window. Table 2 The results of analyses assessing dust from raw and torrefied willow biomass and wheat straw. Figure 1. Figure 2. Explosion pressure curve identified for samples of raw and torrefied willow material. Figure 3. Explosion pressure curve identified for samples of raw and torrefied wheat straw. Materials and Methods 3. Torrefaction Process Comprehensive laboratory tests assessing the impact of the torrefaction process on changes in the explosive properties of dust in the process of generating torrefaction products took into account straw from a winter variety of wheat and energy willow harvested in a three-year cycle.
Samples Analysis The material was examined for its basic physicochemical parameters, such as total content of carbon, ash, nitrogen, hydrogen, water, and volatile substances as well as its calorific value. Figure 4. Table 3 Classes of dust explosivity [ 42 ]. Statistical Analysis The effects of the experimental factors reflected by the relevant parameters, and the relationships between these, were examined using Analysis of Variance ANOVA by means of the Duncan test. Conclusions Biomass is a flammable material which has been used in various energy systems worldwide for many years to great effect.
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