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Second, client-server costs a lot of money. The amount we pay increases with how popular a file is. Say the system dies, the file no longer exists - no one can download it. BitTorrent aims to solve these problems. Semi-centralised peer-to-peer networks possess one or more peers with higher authority than most peers.
BitTorrent is a way to share files. BitTorrent is an alternative to a single source sharing a file, such as a server. BitTorrent can productively work on lower bandwidth. The first release of the BitTorrent client had no search engine and no peer exchange, users who wanted to upload a file had to create a small torrent descriptor file that they would upload to a torrent index site. When a user wants to share a file, they seed their file. This user is called a seeder.
Anyone who wants to download that file will download this torrent descriptor. We call those who download peers. Their torrent client will connect to a tracker discussed later and the tracker will send them a list of IP addresses of other seeds and peers in the swarm. Once the peer completes a download, they could function as a seed. Although, it is possible to function as a seed while also downloading and is very common.
Once the seed has shared the file to a peer, that peer will act as a seed. Instead of the client-server model where only 1 server exists to upload the file, in BitTorrent, multiple people can upload the same file. BitTorrent splits the file up into chunks called pieces, each of a certain size.
As each peer receives a piece, they become a seed of that piece for other peers. With BitTorrent, we do not have a single source to download from. The protocol hashes the pieces to make sure no seed has tampered with the original file. Then stores the hash in the torrent descriptor on the tracker. This is how BitTorrent works at a very high level. We will now go into detail. We aim to answer these questions:.
The URL of the tracker. Remember earlier when we contacted the tracker server to find other peers using the same file? We found that tracker by using the announce key in the torrent descriptor file. This maps to a dictionary whose keys depend on whether one or more files are being shared. The keys are:. Files only exists when multiple files are being shared. Files is a list of dictionaries.
Each dictionary corresponding to a file. Each of these dictionaries has 2 keys. Path - A list of strings corresponding to subdirectory names, the last of which is the actual file name. A list of hashes calculated on various chunks of data. We split the data into pieces. Calculate the hashes for those pieces, store them in a list. BitTorrent uses SHA-1, which returns a bit hash.
Pieces will be a string whose length is a multiple of 20 bytes. If the torrent contains multiple files, the pieces are formed by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files directory. All pieces in the torrent are the full piece length except for the last piece which may be shorter. And I agree. Still confused? Not to worry! I designed this JSON file that describes what a torrent file looks like.
This makes it easier to read and understand the general layout. With a traditional client-server model, we download the whole file. But now, we get to pick what pieces to download. The idea is to download the pieces that no one else has - the rare pieces. By downloading the rare pieces, we make them less rare by uploading them.
BitTorrent uses TCP, a transmission protocol for packets. TCP has a mechanism called slow start. Slow start is a mechanism which balances the speed of a TCP network connection. TCP does this because if we send 16 connections at once, the server may not be used to the traffic and congestion will happen on the network.
Each sub-piece is about 16KB in size. The size for a piece is not fixed, but it is somewhere around 1MB. The protocol always has some number of requests five for a sub-piece pipe-lined. When a new sub-piece is download, the client sends a new request. This helps speed things up. Sub-pieces can be downloaded from other peers. Once the BitTorrent client requests a sub-piece of a piece, any remaining sub-pieces of that piece are requested before any sub-pieces from other pieces.
In this image, it makes sense to download all the sub-pieces of this piece first rather than start downloading another piece. The main policy in BitTorrent is to pick the rarest first. We want to download the piece which the fewest other peers own. If only one peer has a piece and they go offline, no one will get the complete file. A downloader can see what pieces their peers possess, and the rarest first policy will cause us to fetch the pieces from the seed which have not been uploaded by other peers.
Each arrow towards a sub-piece what that peer has downloaded. We downloaded a sub-piece that no one else has other than the seed. This means this sub-piece is rare. Our upload rate is higher than that of the seed, so all peers will want to download from us.
Also, they would want to download the rarest pieces first, and as we are one of 2 holders of the rarest piece. When everyone downloads from us, we can download faster from them. This is the tit-for-tat algorithm discussed later. The more peers that hold the piece, the faster the download can happen. This is because we can download sub-pieces from other peers. A rare piece is most wanted by other peers and getting a rare piece means peers will be interested in uploading from us.
As we will see later, the more we upload, the more we can download. It is sensible to leave the most common pieces to the end of the download. As many peers hold common pieces, the probability of being able to download them is much larger than that of rare pieces. When the seed dies, all the different pieces of the file should be distributed somewhere among the remaining peers.
Once we download, we have nothing to upload. We need the first piece, fast. The rarest first policy is slow. Rare pieces are downloaded slower because we can download its sub-pieces from only a few peers. Causing a delay of the download. When all the sub-pieces a peer lacks are requested, they broadcast this request to all peers.
This helps us get the last chunk of the file. Once a sub-piece arrives, we send a cancel-message telling the other peers to ignore our request. No centralised resource allocation in BitTorrent exists. Instead, every peer maximises their download rate. A peer will download from whoever they can.
The principle is to upload to peers who have uploaded to us. We want several bidirectional connections at the same time and to achieve Pareto Efficiency. We consider an allocation Pareto Efficient if there is no other allocation in which some individual is better off and no individual is worse off.
Current download rates decide which peers to unchoke. We use a second average to decide this. Because of the use of TCP slow-start rapidly choking and unchoking is bad. Thus, this is calculated every 10 seconds. If our upload rate is high more peers will allow us to download from them. This means that we can get a higher download rate if we are a good uploader. This is the most important feature of the BitTorrent protocol.
We call this optimistic unchoking. We shift the optimistic unchoke every 30 seconds. Enough time for the upload reaches full speed. Same for the upload. If this new connection turns out to be better than one of the existing unchoked connections, it will replace it.
This also allows peers who do not upload and only download to download the file, even if they refuse to cooperate. Albeit, they will download at a much slower speed. What happens if all peers uploading to another peer decide to choke it? We then have to find new peers, but the optimistic unchoking mechanism only checks one unused connection every 30 seconds. To help the download rate recover more, BitTorrent has snubbing.
BitTorrent plays a huge role in the recent crypto world and does that for a reason. BitTorrent Inc offered the first Thanks all for sharing your excitement around our crowdfunding. BinanceLaunchpad pic. BitTorrent January 28, It live s up the hype so far thus offers great financial returns for those who own it from day one.
To be more precise, as per day of writing this article, BitTorrent coin price now offers a sweet 8 x return compared to its initial selling price. Until this point, BitTorrent has been widely identified as a peer-to-peer communication protocol for file sharing through the internet.
The protocol was launched by BitTorrent Inc. In order to access the peer-to-peer network and initiate file transmission through the protocol, end users ought to install a software client also called BitTorrent. More than likely, this is where you got to know about BitTorrent as a whole.
It is estimated that the file-sharing community has a reach of roughly M active users around the world. This is a huge user base, which makes BitTorrent file sharing solution a scalable option to be monetized. End users of the software clients will get free BitTorrent tokens.
BTT represents a TRC utility token based on the TRON blockchain that could allow content creators to connect with their audience, earn and spend digital currency without a middleman. Tron Network already has over million users and, of course, BitTorrent will take advantage of it right away. The BitTorrent file sharing network is very similar to the blockchain system — the decentralized sharing of information, protection of users through randomly generated symbol lines and the absence of one administrative organ.
No surprise that some of the biggest torrent portals are now accepting cryptocurrencies as donations and hopefully BitTorrent coin will be one of the payment methods in the near future. BitTorrent aims to tokenize the decentralized file-sharing protocol with their cryptocurrency asset launched early in and create an ecosystem with what they call truly decentralized internet. According to their website, BitTorrent BTT tokens solve the major problem on the peer-to-peer file sharing network.
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